Chikungunya Outbreaks March 2023

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March 31, 2023
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Chikungunya outbreaks confirmed in the Brazil, Caribbean Islands, Djibouti, India, Paraguay, and Thailand during March 2023.

Chikungunya Outbreaks March 2023

Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted to humans through the bites of mosquitoes infected with the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), says the World Health Organization (WHO). Outbreaks were initially recorded in Thailand in 1967 and India in the 1970s. In late 2013, the first local transmission of CHIKV in the Americas was identified in Caribbean countries and U.S. territories. In 2022, about 110 countries confirmed CHIKV cases.

Between January and March 4, 2023, a total of 113,447 cases of chikungunya were reported by the WHO in the Region of the Americas, including 51 deaths, representing a four-fold increase in cases and deaths compared with the same period in 2022. Of the total deaths reported in 2022, three were reported from Brazil.

According to a study's findings published in February 2023, India was the most productive country in South Asia, and Thailand was the most productive country in Southeast Asia. 

Chikungunya Outbreak in the Americas

The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) updated its Arboviral Situation Summary confirming that in 2022, chikungunya cases were reported in 13 countries and territories in the Americas. Furthermore, the PAHO reported on February 20, 2023, the growth of new chikungunya cases in the Americas in 2022 was 813%. Recently, the PAHO issued an Epidemiological Alert on March 8, 2023, the current season expansion of disease is beyond the historical areas of transmission reported since 2014.

On February 2023, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed U.S. States reported 36 travel-associated CHIKV cases in 2022. From 2006–2021, 4,590 chikungunya cases in U.S. travelers (most from the Caribbean (Dominican Republic)) were reported to CDC.

Argentina Chikungunya 2023

Chikungunya was first reported in Argentina in 2016. In 2023, between EW 1 and EW 9, a total of 230 cases were reported, with no deaths. Of the total cases, only 12 have no travel history.

Bolivia Chikungunya 2023

The first case of chikungunya in Bolivia was reported in early 2015. Between EW 1 and 6 of 2023, 300 cases of chikungunya were reported, with no deaths, representing an 8-fold increase in patients compared to the same period in 2022.

Brazil Chikungunya 2023

The PAHO reported on March 8, 2023, between EW 1 and 9, a total of 35,566 probable and confirmed chikungunya cases were reported in Brazil, representing a 109.6% relative increase compared to the same period in 2022. One death was confirmed in Espírito Santo, and 13 others are still under investigation. Out of the 27 Federal Units, 25 reported cases in 2023. According to data from the Brazilian Vigilance Health Secretary, the three Brazilian states with the most CHIKV cases were Pernambuco (29,700), São Paulo (18,100), and Paraíba (9,000) in 2022. And in 2021, in São Paulo, Brazil's most populous state, cases increased from 468 to 18,156 compared to 2020.

India Chikungyna 2023

The government of India publishes a chikungunya information portal. In 2022, India reported about 108 957 chikungunya cases.

Paraguay Chikungunya 2023

As of March 8, 2023, the Paraguay chikungunya outbreak has accelerated (1,128 cases per 100,000 population). The CDC Health Alert Network issued CDCHAN-00487 on March 2, 2023,  confirming that the Ministry of Health in Paraguay reported 71,478 suspect chikungunya cases in Paraguay since the outbreak began in October 2022. Further spread of the outbreak in Paraguay and to surrounding countries is possible. In addition, the CDC issued a Watch - Level 1, Practice Usual Precautions notice on February 22, 2023, confirming an outbreak of chikungunya in Paraguay's Asunción metropolitan area.

Currently, the East/Central/South African (ECSA) chikungunya genotype is circulating, which was first identified in 2018 during an outbreak in the Amambay department, and was again identified in 
samples from 2022 in the Metropolitan Area of Asunción.

Thailand Chikungunya Outbreak

December 24, 2022 - Thailand health officials reported 1,370 chikungunya cases in 48 provinces in 2022. This data is compared to the 671 cases in 39 provinces in 2021, or a 104% increase. And no deaths were reported in either year.

Djibouti Chikungunya Outbreak

During 2019–2020, a large-scale chikungunya outbreak occurred in the Republic of Djibouti. In this study, researchers used blood samples on blotting paper to detect the emergence of CHIKV, making it possible to confirm 90% of the arboviral diagnoses.

Chikungunya Vaccines

As of March 21, 2023, no authorized chikungunya vaccines are available worldwide.