Which Countries Require Yellow Fever Vaccination

Countries like Brazil require yellow fever virus immunization prior to entering the country

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Since the publication of the 2016 edition of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health Information for International Travel, additional country-specific data has been made available on the geographic risk of yellow fever virus (YFV) transmission.

Protection from the yellow fever virus is important since about 15 percent of people who get yellow fever develop serious illness that can sometimes be fatal, says the CDC.   

In the United States, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) published a new recommendation in 2015 that 1 dose of yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting protection and is adequate for most travelers.   

This ACIP recommendation also identifies specific groups of travelers who should receive additional doses and others for whom additional doses may be considered. 

But, new immunization information has recently been published. 

On November 27th, 2018, a new study reported that a one-fifth fractional dose of the Stamaril (17D-YFV) yellow fever vaccine delivered protective antibodies for up to 10 years. 

The CDC says its the clinician’s decision whether or not to vaccinate any traveler must take into account the traveler’s risk of being infected with YFV, country entry requirements, and individual risk factors for serious adverse events after yellow fever vaccination. 

Revaccination against yellow fever was previously required by certain countries at 10-year intervals to comply with the International Health Regulations (IHR). 

As of July 2016, a completed International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP) is valid for the lifetime of the vaccinee. 

Moreover, countries cannot require proof of revaccination against yellow fever as a condition of entry, even if the last vaccination was more than 10 years prior, says the CDC. 

Despite the recent changes to the IHR regarding yellow fever vaccine boosters, it is uncertain when and if all countries with current yellow fever vaccination entry requirements will adopt this change. 

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The CDC says providers and travelers should not rely solely on such information when determining current yellow fever vaccination entry requirements for specific destinations. 

With the caveats described above, international travelers should refer to the online version of this CDC book and the CDC Travelers’ Health website for any reported updates to country entry requirements since the publication of this edition. 

Additionally, the World Health Organization pubishes a similar country listing. 

As of July 2018, the CDC published updated maps indicating which countries require yellow fever vaccination.   

As an example, a large, ongoing outbreak of yellow fever was reported in multiple states of Brazil.  

In response to Brazil’s YFV outbreak, the CDC issued a Level 2 Travel Alert recommending visitors to Brazil protect themselves from yellow fever by getting the yellow fever vaccine at least 10 days before arrival.

Yellow fever is a disease caused by a virus that is spread through mosquito bites. 

To prevent getting sick from the yellow fever virus, the CDC says to use insect repellent, wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants, and get vaccinated. 

International travelers can find convenient locations to schedule a vaccination appointment by visiting Vax-Before-Travel.

The CDC Vaccine Price List provides private sector vaccine prices for general information. And, vaccine discounts can be found on this webpage.   

Vaccines, like any medicine, can have side effects. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of vaccines to the CDC.