Marburg Virus Vaccine
Marburg Virus Vaccine
There are no approved vaccines for Marburg Virus Disease (MVD), reported the ECDC in July 2022. However, several Marburg virus (MARV) candidate vaccines are in Phase 1 clinical studies, such as cAd3, MVA-BN-Filo, and MARV DNA.
A Phase 1a clinical trial of a chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 3 vector vaccine (cAd3) MARV vaccine is currently ongoing.
Ebola viruses, MARV GPs, and Tai Forest NP are included in the modified vaccinia Ankara vector vaccine (MVA-BN-Filo) in the Phase 2 clinical trial.
Although DNA vaccines have the potential to produce humoral and cellular immunity in non-human primates, these have shown low immunogenicity in clinical trials. Phase 1b clinical studies for a MARV DNA plasmid vaccine (VRC-MARDNA025-00-VP) expressing MARV Angola DNA have been completed.
Although recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vaccine incorporating MARV GP in place of its innate surface membrane GP appears promising for MARV, no Phase 1 clinical studies have been conducted to date.
MARV virus-like particles (mVLP) vaccines have been developed using MARV VP40, GP, and NP. In non-human primates, an mVLP vaccine against MARV-Musoke, Ravn, and Ci67 isolates was tested, and antibody responses to all three strains were observed.
Marburg viruses are filamentous, enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses that belong to the family Filoviridae, genus Marburgvirus. There is a single species of Marburg marburgvirus that includes the Marburg and Ravn virus, with approximately 20% genetic divergence. Both Marburg viruses cause clinically indistinguishable MVD and are highly lethal human pathogens that have been linked to several epidemics of hemorrhagic fever in Africa.
MARV Musoke, Angola, Ci67, Ozolin, Popp, Ratayczak, and Voege are MARV variants with fewer genomic differences.
Marburg Virus Disease Outbreaks
July 27, 2022 - The WHO confirmed a 4th Marburg virus case in the African country of Ghana.
July 22, 2022 - The WHO announced, 'The risk of this outbreak is high at the national level, moderate at the regional level, and low at the global level. The notification of two confirmed cases of MVD with a CFR of 100% (2/2) raises concern. The epidemiological investigation has not yet identified the source of this outbreak, which highlights the need to intensify the community-based surveillance.'
July 18, 2022 - No Marburg Disease Vaccine Available for Africa's Latest Outbreak.
May 27, 2022 - Research article: A highly attenuated Vesiculovax vaccine rapidly protects nonhuman primates against the lethal Marburg virus challenge. Significance: These results emphasize the utility of Vesiculovax vaccines for MVD outbreak management. The highly attenuated nature of rVSV-N4CT1 vaccines, which are clinically safe in humans, may be preferable to vaccines based on the same platform as Ervebo (rVSV “delta G” platform), which in some trial participants induced vaccine-related adverse events in association with viral replication including arthralgia/arthritis, dermatitis, and cutaneous vasculitis.
October 27, 2021 - Orgininal Research: Single Dose of a VSV-Based Vaccine Rapidly Protects Macaques From Marburg Virus Disease. In summary, our data demonstrate that the VSV-MARV is a fast-acting vaccine suitable for the use in emergency situations like disease outbreaks in Africa.