Polio Vaccines For 2022

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Last reviewed
May 22, 2022

Polio Vaccines For 2022

Polio can be prevented with a vaccine, says the U.S. CDC. There are different poliovirus vaccines authorized, which may contain one, a combination of two, or all three different serotypes in one polio vaccine. 

Since 2000, an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) has been most often given in the USA. However, the IVP produces antibodies in the blood to all three poliovirus types, says the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Therefore, the CDC recommends that children get vaccinated to protect against poliomyelitis.

The CDC updated the pediatric and adult polio vaccination schedules on Feb. 17, 2022.

U.S. FDA Authorized Polio Vaccines 2022

IPOL is a sterile suspension of three types of poliovirus: Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF-1), and Type 3 (Saukett). IPOL vaccine is a highly purified, inactivated poliovirus vaccine with enhanced potency administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously.

Combination Polio Vaccines 2022

Kinrix (Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine) is a noninfectious, sterile vaccine. 

Pediarix is a vaccine for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and infection caused by all known subtypes of hepatitis B virus and poliomyelitis.

Quadracel contains diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis [pertussis toxoid (P.T.), filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin, fimbriae types 2 and 3, inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine.

Pentacel is indicated for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and invasive disease due to H influenzae type b. Pentacel vaccine is approved for use as a 4-dose series in children six weeks through 4 years of age (before the fifth birthday).

All combination vaccines that also protect disease from polio include the three types of poliovirus: Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF-1), and Type 3 (Saukett).

WHO Prequalified Polio Vaccine 2022

Eupolio is the first Sabin-IPV to obtain WHO prequalification. The main advantage of using attenuated Sabin poliovirus strains in IPV production is a lower biosafety risk than wild-type polioviruses used to manufacture conventional IPVs to pose a biosafety hazard case they escape from the manufacturing facility.

nOPV2M4a Polio Vaccine candidate is derived from the live, infectious virus. It has been 'triple-locked using genetic engineering to prevent it from becoming harmful. nOPV2M4a is genetically more stable than existing OPVs, with a lower risk of reversion to neurovirulence.

SINOVAC's sIPV polio vaccine is approved for infants and children aged two months and above to prevent poliomyelitis due to infection of types I, II, and III polioviruses. The primary immunization requires three doses at least one month apart, beginning at two months. A booster shot will be given at 18 months of age. This product was developed through a technology transfer from The Institute for Translational Vaccinology for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative by the WHO.

The WHO Prequalification Program issued an Emergency Use Listing recommendation for the nOPV2 vaccine on November 13, 2020. This announcement enables the rollout of the nOPV2 vaccine in countries affected by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreaks. The full licensure and prequalification of nOPV2 use are under the WHO Emergency Use Listing procedure.

Polio Epidemics

Poliovirus has been around since ancient times. It lives in an infected person’s throat and intestines and spreads through person-to-person contact. Countries infected with WPV1, cVDPV1, or cVDPV3, with the potential risk of international spread, include Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Malawi (WPV1), China (cVDPV3), Madagascar (cVDPV1), and Yemen (cVDPV1). The health authorities in Malawi declared an outbreak of wild poliovirus type 1 on February 17, 2022, and Pakistan launched its investigations on April 22, 2022. 

And the International Health Regulations National Focal Point for Israel notified WHO of the detection of cVDPV3 in the country on March 7, 2022. Polio vaccination estimates for Israel in 2020 were the third dose of IPV and the first dose of OPV coverage in Israel was estimated to be 97.6% and 88.3%, respectively. As of April 29, 2022, this GPEI map shows the latest number of WPV1 and cVDPV polio cases in each affected country.

On March 11, 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the thirty-first meeting of the Emergency Committee unanimously agreed that the risk of international spread of poliovirus remains a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

Polio Vaccine News 2021 - 2022

May 20, 2022 - The ECDC reported since the previous update, 35 new cases of AFP caused by poliovirus have been reported.

May 18, 2022 - Health authorities in Mozambique declared a wild poliovirus type 1 outbreak after confirming that one child in the country’s north-eastern Tete province had contracted poliovirus.

May 17, 2022 - The government of Pakistan decided to launch a nationwide polio immunization campaign from May 23, 2020, following the confirmation of three new polio cases.

May 16, 2022 - The Palestinian Ministry of Health launched round one of a polio vaccination campaign targeting all children under age five in Bethlehem and Jerusalem.

May 11, 2022 - The Global Polio Eradication Initiative weekly report confirmed vaccine-derived polio cases in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, and Nigeria, recorded polio cases this week.

April 29, 2022 - PTI reported a young girl in Pakistan’s Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province tested positive for polio, the second case in one week.

April 28, 2022 - The Global Polio Eradication Initiative confirmed the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, and Somalia reported new polio cases involving cVDPV2. In Pakistan, a new case of WPV1 was reported from North Waziristan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, with the onset of paralysis on 9 April. 

April 27, 2022 - Haaretz reported Israel's Health Ministry is expanding its polio vaccination campaign to all of Israel. Most of the two million children who need to complete their vaccination regimen were born between 2005 and 2013 when only the inactivated virus vaccine was given in Israel. 

April 26, 2022 - The Global Polio Eradication Initiative announced that it is seeking new commitments to fund its 2022-2026 Strategy. The new funding would support vaccinations of 370 million children annually for the next five years and the continuation of global surveillance activities for polio and other diseases in 50 countries.

April 24, 2022 - The Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, the global immunization advisory body to the WHO, recently urged concerted action to eliminate wild polioviruses.

April 22, 2022 - A 15-month-old boy was paralyzed by type-1 wild poliovirus in the first such case in fifteen months. This is the third case of wild polio recorded globally in 2022.

April 15, 2022 - The WHO confirmed seven VDPV3 positives had been reported in Israel, including the index case and six asymptomatic children. Only one had incomplete polio immunization of these seven children, while the other six were unvaccinated. There were also two children where VDPV3 was detected using in-house molecular techniques.

April 13, 2022 - Israel's Health Ministry confirmed that its ongoing polio vaccination campaign would be expanding beyond Jerusalem and be offered to all children up to age 6. This program may reach about 2.5 million children in Israel.

April 12, 2022 - Israel's Ministry of Health confirmed since 1988 there have not been any cases of infantile paralysis as a result of the poliovirus until 2022 when such a case was discovered in Jerusalem. The Ministry of Health announced that every parent is required to check the vaccination status of children under the age of 17 years, and whether a complementary vaccine is needed. It is important to know that children born between 2005 and 2013, did not get all the vaccine doses as part of the routine vaccination plan and are requested to complete their vaccines. 

April 6, 2022 - The Democratic Republic of Congo reported seven cVDPV2 cases, and Nigeria confirmed six cVDPV2 cases and seven positive environmental polio samples.

April 5, 2022 - Israel reports potentially eight polio cases in 2022.

March 29, 2022 - The Israeli Ministry of Health confirmed the 6th polio case in 2022.

March 23, 2022 - GPEI reported new polio cases - Niger: two cVDPV2 cases; Nigeria: two cVDPV2 cases; Yemen: three cVDPV2 cases.

March 20, 2022 - UNICEF reported about nine million children are to be vaccinated against polio in the first round of a mass campaign across four countries in Eastern and Southern Africa after an outbreak was confirmed in Malawi.  

March 17, 2022 - PLOS One published a Research Article - Use of oral polio vaccine and the incidence of COVID-19 in the world. Conclusions: Countries using OPV have a lower incidence of COVID-19 compared to those using IPV. This might suggest that OPV may either prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection at the individual level or slow down the transmission at the community level.

March 16, 2022 - The GPEI reported new polio cases: DR Congo: three cVDPV2 cases; Nigeria: one cVDPV2 case.

March 14, 2022 - The Israeli Ministry of Health published a FAQ statement that included: in Israel, there are two types of polio vaccines that are part of the routine immunization program for children: IPV - Inactivated Polio Vaccine; bOPV - Bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine.

March 10, 2022 - The WHO announced circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus was confirmed in Israel and the occupied Palestinian territory. The Israeli Ministry of Health reported various stool samples have tested positive near Jerusalem, and have declared a polio outbreak.

March 8, 2022 - The ECDC reported Ukraine has considerable vulnerability to polio particularly for children <6 years of age. Overall vaccination coverage for polio was 80% in 2021 and this level of coverage has not been exceeded in recent years. A national vaccination campaign began in February 2022, with injectable and oral polio vaccines.

Monday 7, 2022 - A case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 3 (cVDPV3) was confirmed in a young Israeli girl. The girl had developed acute flaccid paralysis upon testing her stool.

March 4, 2022 - Polio emergency response teams in Malawi are ramping up disease surveillance and deepening investigations after the country detected a case of wild poliovirus—the first of its kind in Africa since 2016. Determining the extent of the risk and searching for any further cases are among the crucial steps for an effective response to halt the virus and protect children from its debilitating impact.

March 3, 2022 - Madagascar reported a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 case (cVDPV1) case from Anosy the region in the southeastern part of the country. Madagascar had confirmed 13 cases in 2021, and a previous one in 2022.

February 23, 2022 - The GPEI reported new poliovirus cases: DR Congo: two cVDPV2 cases; Madagascar: two cVDPV1 cases; Malawi: one WPV1 case; Nigeria: three cVDPV2 cases; Yemen: three cVDPV2 cases,

February 22, 2022 - The U.S. CDC issued an Alert - Level 2, Practice Enhanced Precautions, for African countries currently considered high risk for polio.

February 15, 2022 - A local article stated: The success of India's polio eradication program was based on three principles; bundling of health services, local stakeholder engagement, and putting in place accountability mechanisms. 

February 10, 2022 - The EMRO Regional Subcommittee on Polio Eradication and Outbreaks recently issued two statements, on the importance of achieving and sustaining a polio-free Eastern Mediterranean, specifically on stopping wild poliovirus transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan and on stopping cVDPVs in Yemen.

February 9, 2022 - The GPEI reported Afghanistan's one WPV1 case was reported in Paktika making it the first case in 2022. There were four WPV1 cases reported in 2021 and the total number of cVDPV2 cases remains 43.

January 26, 2022 - The GPEi reported new polio cases: DR Congo: two cVDPV2 cases; Nigeria: five cVDPV2 cases and 23 positive environmental samples; Ukraine: one cVDPV2 case.

January 19, 2022 - Nigeria reported ongoing cVDPV2 activity. The GPEI confirmed Nigeria's three new cases are included in the country's total for 2021, which now stands at 388.

January 12, 2022 - The GPEI reported DR Congo confirmed two cVDPV2 cases, and Yemen reported four cVDPV2 cases.

December 9, 2021 - The WHO stated travelers to Yemen's polio-affected areas be fully vaccinated against polio. Residents (and visitors for more than 4 weeks) from infected areas should receive an additional dose of oral polio vaccine (OPV) or inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) within four weeks to 12 months of travel.

December 8, 2021 - The GPEI's weekly summary of new WPV and cVDPV this week includes Afghanistan: one WPV1 case; Cameroon: one cVDPV2 case and one positive environmental sample; Nigeria: 18 cVDPV2 cases and 15 positive environmental samples.

November 17, 2021 - Nigeria confirmed six cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported; three in Bauchi and one each in Gombe, Katsina, and Yobe. There are 280 cases reported in 2021. There were eight cases reported in 2020. And 26 cVDPV2 positive environmental samples were reported; seven in Borno, six each in Gombe and Kano, three in Katsina, one in Taraba, and two in Yobe.

November 3, 2021 - The ECDC confirmed the Ministry of Health of Ukraine reported a poliomyelitis case in the Transcarpathia region of Ukraine in a 12- year-old girl with acute flaccid paralysis.

November 2, 2021 - Kenya has not had a case of wild poliovirus since 2013. However, cases of cVDPV2 have been reported in 2020 and 2021. Beyond polio isolates detected in human cases, environmental samples drawn from 17 sites in the country have also contained polio isolates.

November 1, 2021 - The U.S. CDC re-issued a Level 2 Travel Advisory for central Africa. Before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series. 

October 26, 2021 - The WHO Africa published: Pursuing the endgame: novel polio vaccine rollout in Africa.

October 21, 2021 - World Polio Day 2021 highlights progress and ongoing commitment to end polio everywhere. To sustain the European Region's polio-free status, it is vital to vaccinate all children according to national routine immunization schedules and to quickly detect any importation or possible emergence of a vaccine-derived strain of the virus. If a case is detected, immediate action must be taken to prevent further transmission.

October 21, 2021 - GatesNotes published an article: Going door to door, this hero brings the world closer to ending polio.

October 20, 2021 - GPEI published a summary of new WPV and cVDPV this week (AFP cases and ES positives): Nigeria: 37 cVDPV2 cases and 19 cVDPV2 positive environmental samples; Senegal: one cVDPV2 case; Somalia: one cVDPD2 case.

October 18, 2021 - Residential polio vaccinations are set to recommence across Afghanistan in November 2021.

October 14, 2021 - The U.S. CDC issued a Travel Alert regarding polio outbreaks in Asia and Eastern Europe.

October 11, 2021 - The Lancet published a study: Risk factors for the spread of vaccine-derived type 2 polioviruses after global withdrawal of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine and the effects of outbreak responses with monovalent vaccine: a retrospective analysis of surveillance data for 51 countries in Africa. Interpretation - Our findings suggest that as mucosal immunity declines, larger or faster responses with vaccination campaigns using type 2-containing OPV will be required to stop cVDPV2 transmission. IPV-induced immunity also has an important role in reducing the burden of cVDPV2 poliomyelitis in Africa.

October 11, 2021 - Following careful review of the safety and genetic stability data from mass immunization campaigns conducted with the novel oral polio vaccine type 2 (nOPV2), the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization (SAGE) endorsed the transition to the next use phase for the vaccine. The WHO's independent Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety (GACVS) and SAGE confirmed that there were no major safety concerns associated with nOPV2 after reviewing data. The rollout of nOPV2 began in March 2021, and to date, approximately 100 million doses have been administered to children across seven countries.

October 8, 2021 - The Ukraine Ministry of Health reported a case of acute flaccid paralysis, caused by poliovirus type 2, in an unvaccinated 18-month-old girl from Rivne oblast, Ukraine. "The level of immunization of children with polio is insufficient. Only 53% of children under the age of one received routine vaccinations in 2021. Given the case of polio, we now have to make an additional tour and vaccinate all children in the region to protect children from infection. In addition, we have results from the WHO, which identify it as an outbreak and the virus is associated with viruses of Afghan-Pakistani origin, which are now circulating in Tajikistan, "- said Deputy Minister of Health - Chief State Sanitary Igor Kuzin. The Emergency Situations Commission also decided that unvaccinated children will not be admitted to a school. 

October 6, 2021 - The GPEI confirmed 17 cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported in Nigeria. There are now 169 cases reported in 2021. Nigeria reported only 8 cases last year.

October 6, 2021 - The Ministry of Health in Kenya received confirmation of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) isolation from an acute flaccid paralysis sample. The case was a patient who had been living in Dadaab in Garissa county found in North Eastern Kenya.

September 29, 2021 - The Global Polio Eradication Initiative published a summary of new WPV and cVDPV reported last week: Madagascar: two cVDPV1 cases; Senegal: one cVDPV2 case.

September 24, 2021 - U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security Alejandro Mayorkas confirmed Afghan nationals who are paroled into the United States are required to take vaccinations for measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and COVID-19, amongst others, as conditions of their humanitarian parole. 

September 22, 2021 - "Afghanistan is one of two countries in the world where polio remains endemic. With only one case of wild poliovirus reported so far this year, compared to 56 in 2020, there has never been a better time to eradicate polio. However, the polio program will struggle to respond if the basic immunization infrastructure begins to collapse around it." Stated Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of the World Health Organization, and Dr. Ahmed Al-Mandhari, WHO Regional Director for the Eastern Mediterranean on their visit to Kabul.

September 15, 2021 - The GPEI confirmed Nigeria reported ten cVDPV2 cases last week, as did Mali with one cVDPV2 case.

September 2, 2021 - The Global Polio Eradication Initiative reported additional polio cases last week. The weekly summary and detailed country information are available at this link

August 26, 2021 - The WHO Africa region confirmed almost 100 million African children had been vaccinated against polio since July 2020, after activities were paused due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

August 19, 2021 - The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is closely monitoring developments in Afghanistan. GPEI partners and staff are currently assessing immediate disruptions to polio eradication efforts and the delivery of other essential health services to ensure continuity of surveillance and immunization activities while prioritizing the safety and security of staff and frontline health workers in the country. The GPEI remains steadfastly committed to protecting all children from polio and supporting other essential immunizations and health services.

August 11, 2021 - The GPEI reported a summary of new WPV and cVDPV viruses this week (AFP cases and E.S. positives): Burkina Faso: one cVDPV2 case; Ethiopia: one cVDPV2 case; Mali: two cVDPV2 cases; Nigeria: three cVDPV2 cases.

August 4, 2021 - The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) confirmed four countries have reported circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 cases: Afghanistan: one cVDPV2 case; DR Congo: one cVDPV2 case; Nigeria: 16 cVDPV2 cases; Tajikistan: seven cVDPV2 cases.

July 24, 2021 - The United Arab Emirates announced an additional US$9.5 million support to the Pakistan Polio Eradication Initiative. The funding will be used to vaccinate approximately 16 million children during door-to-door immunization campaigns in 84 highest-risk districts.

July 15, 2021 - SINOVAC Biotech Ltd. announced it received drug registration approval from China's National Medical Product Administration for its Sabin strain-based inactivated polio vaccine ("sIPV"). The vaccine is expected to be available on the market by the end of 2021. SINOVAC's sIPV is approved for use on infants and children aged two months and above to prevent poliomyelitis due to infection of types I, II, and III polioviruses. The primary immunization requires three doses at least one month apart, beginning at two months of age. A booster shot will be given at 18 months of age. 

June 29, 2021 - Nigeria reported ten infections involving circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2, according to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

June 14, 2021 - The Ministry of Public Health of Afghanistan confirmed the third national polio immunization campaign from June 14 to 17, 2021. The campaign aims to reach approximately 9.9 million children under the age of 5 across the country with polio vaccines and Albendazole deworming tablets.

June 10, 2021 - The Global Polio Eradication Initiative announced the launch of the Polio Eradication Strategy 2022-2026: Delivering on a Promise at a virtual event to overcome the remaining challenges to ending polio, including setbacks caused by COVID-19. While polio cases have fallen 99.9% since 1988, polio remains a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, and persistent barriers to reaching every child with polio vaccines and the pandemic have increased polio cases.

May 21, 2021 - The twenty-eighth meeting of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR) on the international spread of poliovirus was convened by the WHO Director-General on May 4, 2021, with Committee members and advisers attending via video conference, supported by the WHO Secretariat. The Emergency Committee reviewed the data on wild poliovirus (WPV1) and circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV). As a result, the Committee unanimously agreed that the risk of international spread of poliovirus remains a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and recommended the extension of Temporary Recommendations for a further three months.

April 30, 2021 - The Lancet published a study that concluded: There is no substantial difference in seroconversion between three fractional doses of IPV and three doses of full-dose IPV, although the full dose gives higher titers of antibodies for poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3. The use of fractional IPV instead of the full dose can stretch supplies and possibly lower vaccination costs.

Polio Outbreak News 2020

For the latest news about polio outbreaks around the world, visit this page. And the Global Polio Eradication Initiative map indicates various countries continue to report new poliovirus cases.

Poliomyelitis Overview

Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease that primarily affects children 5 years and under. There are 3 strains of wild poliovirus (type 1, type 2, and type 3). In the USA, all infants and children should receive 4 doses of IPV at ages 2, 4, 6–18 months, and 4–6 years. The first dose may be given as early as 6 weeks of age. The final dose should be administered at 4 years of age or older, regardless of the number of previous doses, and should be given 6 months or more after the previous dose. A fourth dose in the routine IPV series is unnecessary if the third dose was given at 4 years of age or older and 6 months or more after the previous dose.

Note: This content has been aggregated from the CDC, WHO, pharmaceutical vaccine producers, and the PrecisionVaccinations news network and reviewed by healthcare providers, such as Dr. Bob Carlson.