Polio Vaccines For 2022

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Last reviewed
September 26, 2022

Polio Vaccines For 2022

Polio is a vaccine-preventable disease, says the U.S. CDC. And 'anyone planning to travel internationally should confirm they are fully vaccinated against polio disease before visiting at-risk countries,' says the World Health Organization (WHO) International Travel and Health vaccine recommendations. The U.S. CDC confirmed on September 13, 2022, that the U.S. was added to the list of countries for circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus.

In addition, residents (and visitors for more than four weeks) from infected areas should receive an additional dose of oral polio vaccines (OPV) or inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) within four weeks to 12 months of travel. Most countries recommend children get vaccinated against polio early in life. In 2021, more than 372 million children were immunized against polio multiple times in 30 countries, using more than one billion OPV.

Polio Vaccine Before Travel

On June 24, 2022, the World Health Organization (WHO) reaffirmed that the risk of international spread of poliovirus remains a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. And the GPEI shared reports on polio eradication and transition at the 75th WHO World Health Assembly in late May 2022. On July 1, 2022, the WHO released an updated guidance document for poliovirus outbreak containment. The update to the WHO Global Action Plan for Poliovirus Containment (GAP-IV, previously GAP-III) comes at the request of the WHO Containment Advisory Group.

On September 6, 2022, the CDC's latest travel advisory stated that anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series before any international travel.

The WHO South-East Asia Region sustained its polio-free status during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Commission concluded on September 23, 2022, that the Region has not had any case of wild poliovirus or circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV). However, risks persist due to the continued circulation of wild poliovirus type 1 in endemic countries bordering the Region, as well as due to the cVDPVs being reported from several countries in other Regions.

And the Pan America Health Organization (PAHO) confirmed on September 21, 2022, vaccination coverage has fallen below 80% in nearly all of South America, and 12 countries (Brazil) in the region are at High or Very High risk of experiencing a polio outbreak.

Polio Vaccines - USA

Since 2000, an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) has often been given in the USA. The IVP produces antibodies to all three poliovirus types (Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF-1), and Type 3 (Saukett), says the CDC. Of people examined in a study, 4,806 (85%) had serum samples available for poliovirus antibody testing. The proportion of examined participants with tested samples varied by age (6–11 years, 74 %; 12–19 years, 85 %; 20–39 years, 89 %; 40–49 years, 91 %; p < 0.001).

The CDC updated the pediatric and adult polio vaccination schedules on February 17, 2022.

IPOL is a sterile suspension of three types of poliovirus: Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF-1), and Type 3 (Saukett). IPOL is a highly purified, inactivated poliovirus vaccine with enhanced potency administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously.

Kinrix (Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine) is a noninfectious, sterile vaccine. 

Pediarix is a vaccine for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and infection caused by all known subtypes of hepatitis B virus and poliomyelitis.

Quadracel contains diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis [pertussis toxoid (P.T.), filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin, fimbriae types 2 and 3, inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine.

Pentacel is indicated for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and invasive disease due to H influenzae type b. Pentacel vaccine is approved for use as a 4-dose series in children six weeks through 4 years of age (before the fifth birthday).

Polio Vaccines - U.K.

The polio vaccine is part of the NHS childhood vaccination schedule. It's given when children are 8, 12, and 16 weeks old as part of the 6-in-1 vaccine; then at three years and four months old as part of the 4-in-1 (DTaP/IPV) pre-school booster, and at 14 years old as part of the 3-in-1 (Td/IPV) teenage booster. In the U.K., children need to have all of these vaccinations to be fully vaccinated against polio.

WHO Prequalified Polio Vaccine 2022

Eupolio is the first Sabin-IPV to obtain WHO prequalification. The main advantage of using attenuated Sabin poliovirus strains in IPV production is a lower biosafety risk than wild-type polioviruses used to manufacture conventional IPVs to pose a biosafety hazard case they escape from the manufacturing facility.

nOPV2 Polio vaccine is derived from the live, infectious virus. It has been 'triple-locked using genetic engineering to prevent it from becoming harmful. nOPV2M4a is genetically more stable than existing OPVs, with a lower risk of reversion to neurovirulence.

SINOVAC's sIPV polio vaccine is approved for infants and children aged two months and older to prevent poliomyelitis from infection of types I, II, and III polioviruses. The primary immunization requires three doses at least one month apart, beginning at two months. A booster shot is given at 18 months of age. This product was developed through a technology transfer from The Institute for Translational Vaccinology for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative by the WHO.

nOPV2 Polio Vaccine

Approximately 370 million doses of nOPV2 have been administered across 21 countries under its WHO Emergency Use Listing (EUL) to date. The WHO Prequalification Program issued a EUL recommendation for the nOPV2 vaccine on November 13, 2020. This announcement enables the rollout of the nOPV2 vaccine in countries affected by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreaks. The full licensure and prequalification of nOPV2 use are under the WHO Emergency Use Listing procedure.

Polio Vaccine Price

The Vaccines For Children program is a federally funded program that provides vaccines at no cost to children who might not otherwise be vaccinated because of their inability to pay. For people in the USA not covered by health insurance, a polio booster typically costs about $100 or more. For example, at CVS Pharmacy's Minute Clinics, a polio shot costs $115. The U.S. CDC Vaccine Price List was updated on July 1, 2022.

This table provides an overview of Oral polio vaccine prices contracted with suppliers by UNICEF per vaccine. And additional polio vaccine prices and discount information are available at InstantRx™.

Polio Vaccinations New York

On August 26, 2022, State Health Commissioner Dr. Mary T. Bassett stated, "...polio in New York is an imminent threat to all adults and children who are unvaccinated or not up to date with their polio immunizations." On September 9, 2022, NY's governor issued Executive Order #21 declaring a 'State Disaster Emergency.' In New York City, the health department stated in August 2022: 'The most important way for children and adults to protect themselves from polio is to get vaccinated. Vaccinated adults at increased risk of exposure to poliovirus should talk to their health care provider about whether they may need a booster.'

Polio Vaccine News 2022

September 23, 2022 - The WHO published: Dr. Zubair Wadood explains on YouTube what it will take to eradicate polio from the planet in Science in 5.

September 21, 2022 - New polioviruses were reported by th GPEI this week: Afghanistan: one WPV1 case, Pakistan: two WPV1 cases and one positive environmental sample, Mozambique: one WPV1 case, Benin: two cVDPV2 cases and one positive environmental sample, DR Congo: one cVDPV2 case, Ghana: one cVDPV2 positive environmental sample, Madagascar: one cVDPV1 positive environmental sample, Malawi: two cVDPV1 cases, and Nigeria: one cVDPV2 positive environmental sample.

September 14, 2022 - The GPEI reported a WPV1-positive environmental sample this week reported from greater Karachi, Sindh, linked to WPV1 from southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Detection of the poliovirus in Karachi is not unexpected, given the large-scale and frequent population movements between Karachi and the rest of Pakistan. In the DRC in Africa, cVDPV1 has been confirmed.

September 13, 2022 - The WHO announced it was notified of a case of cVDPV2 with AFP from Tamanrasset province, southern Algeria. This represents the first cVDPV2 case identified in the country.

September 11, 2022 - India's western neighbor reported Wild Poliovirus Type-1 was detected in an environmental sample collected from a sewage line in Karachi's Landhi area.

September 9, 2022 - The State of New York confirmed that 57 positive poliovirus samples of concern have been found in wastewater from four countries in 2022.

September 8, 2022 - Two cVDPV2 positive environmental samples were reported this week in London, England.

September 7, 2022 - Summary of new polioviruses this week: Pakistan: two WPV1 cases; Mozambique: two cVDPV1 cases; DR Congo: seven cVDPV2 cases and one positive environmental sample; Ghana: one cVDPV2 case and one positive environmental sample; Niger: two cVDPV2 positive environmental samples; UK: two cVDPV2 positive environmental samples; Yemen: 10 cVDPV2 cases

September 6, 2022 - The U.S. CDC reissued its Level 2 Travel Alert for polio outbreaks in various African countries.

August 26, 2022 - Sullivan County, New York, USA, detected poliovirus in wastewater samples within the County's borders.

August 25, 2022 - The Pakistani Health Ministry told Xinhua that wild poliovirus has recently been detected in the sewage samples of Peshawar and Bannu cities of KP and Punjab's capital Lahore. Poliovirus was previously found in the samples from Rawalpindi, Sialkot, and Bahawalpur cities of Punjab, the ministry said.

August 24, 2022 - The Global Polio Eradication Initiative reported additional poliovirus detections in four countries.

August 23, 2022 - The UKHSA announced: All children aged 1 to 9 years in London need to have a dose of the polio vaccine now. 

August 22, 2022 - The journal Nature published: Spate of polio outbreaks worldwide puts scientists on alert.

August 18, 2022 - The Lancet published a Commentary: Emergence of vaccine-derived poliovirus in high-income settings (London) in the absence of oral polio vaccine use.

August 17, 2022 - The Global Polio Eradication Initiative reported cVDPV2 cases in Niger, Nigeria, and Yemen this week.

August 10, 2022 - The UKHSA confirmed the JCVI recommends that polio vaccine booster doses should be offered to children across London.

July 29, 2022 - Following the recent polio detection in Rockland County, NY, the Global Polio Laboratory Network confirmed that the VDPV2 isolated from the case is genetically linked to two Sabin-like type 2 (SL2) isolates collected from environmental samples in early June 2022 in both New York and greater Israel, as well as to the recently-detected VDPV2 from environmental samples in London, UK.

July 27, 2022 - The U.S. CDC reissued an Alert - Level 2, Practice Enhanced Precautions, for the expanding polio outbreak throughout Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

July 21, 2022 - The Rockland County Department of Health alerted the public that beginning on July 22, 2022, Rockland County will host polio vaccination clinics in Pomona, New York. Anyone who is unvaccinated – including those who are pregnant – has not completed their polio vaccine series or is concerned they have might have been exposed should get vaccinated at the clinics.

July 7, 2022 - The WHO announced Mozambique initiated the third round of vaccination against wild poliovirus type 1 for children under five children, Neighbouring Malawi, Tanzania, and Zambia will also embark on the third phase of mass vaccination campaigns in the coming weeks.

July 6, 2022 - The U.S. CDC issued Level 2 Travel Advisories regarding polio outbreaks in Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

June 28, 2022 - Health workers across Bethlehem and Jerusalem governorates, supported by WHO, UNICEF, and UNRWA, gave an extra dose of polio protection to over 2 million children under five during round two of the polio vaccination campaign.

June 23, 2022 - The WHO announced 'that the risk of international spread of poliovirus, particularly across the South East region of Africa remains high. The WHO considers a continuous high risk of the global spread of WPV1. And the risk of spread associated with the concurrent cVDPV2 outbreak is currently assessed as moderate.

June 22, 2022 - The UK Heath Security Agency announced it had found poliovirus in sewage samples collected from the London Beckton Sewage Treatment Works. Investigations are underway after several closely-related viruses were found in sewage samples taken between February and May 2022. The virus has only been detected in sewage samples, and no associated cases of paralysis have been reported. The investigations will aim to establish if any community transmission is occurring. The last case of wild polio contracted in the U.K. was confirmed in 1984.

June 15, 2022 - The Global Polio Eradication Initiative reported cases of cVDPV2 were confirmed in Burkina Faso and Chad.

June 8, 2022 - The State of Eritrea, located in northeast Africa, reported its first cVDPV2 case, which prompted the country to declare a national public health emergency. GPEI reported the isolated virus is linked to VDPV2 last detected in July 2020 in Sudan and belongs to the CHA-NDJ-1 emergence, originating in Nigeria. Eritrea benefits from high levels of routine vaccination coverage, estimated at 95% (according to 2020 WHO-UNICEF Coverage Estimates), and a non-polio AFP surveillance rate of 1.44 in 2022 (declined from 6.86 in 2021).

June 8, 2022 - SINOVAC Biotech Ltd. announced that it received the World Health Organization prequalification for its Poliomyelitis Vaccine on June 2, 2022. The vaccine will be available for United Nations agencies to purchase to support the global polio endgame strategy.

June 2, 2022 - Pakistan reported three more cases of wild poliovirus type 1 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, bringing the number of 2022 cases to six. In addition, two have been confirmed from North Waziristan. Both children are 18 months old.

May 25, 2022 - The GPEI stated that the polioviruses found in Malawi and Mozambique stem from WPV1, which was circulating in endemic Pakistan in 2019 and 2020.

May 20, 2022 - The ECDC reported since the previous update, 35 new cases of AFP caused by poliovirus have been reported.

May 18, 2022 - Health authorities in Mozambique declared a wild poliovirus type 1 outbreak after confirming that one child in the country's north-eastern Tete province had contracted poliovirus.

May 17, 2022 - The government of Pakistan decided to launch a nationwide polio immunization campaign from May 23, 2020, following the confirmation of three new polio cases.

May 16, 2022 - The Palestinian Ministry of Health launched round one of a polio vaccination campaign targeting all children under age five in Bethlehem and Jerusalem.

May 11, 2022 - The Global Polio Eradication Initiative weekly report confirmed vaccine-derived polio cases in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, and Nigeria, recorded polio cases this week.

April 29, 2022 - PTI reported a young girl in Pakistan's Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province tested positive for polio, the second case in one week.

April 28, 2022 - The Global Polio Eradication Initiative confirmed the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, and Somalia reported new polio cases involving cVDPV2. In Pakistan, a new case of WPV1 was reported from North Waziristan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, with the onset of paralysis on 9 April. 

April 27, 2022 - Haaretz reported Israel's Health Ministry is expanding its polio vaccination campaign to all of Israel. Most of the two million children who need to complete their vaccination regimen were born between 2005 and 2013 when only the inactivated virus vaccine was given in Israel. 

April 26, 2022 - The Global Polio Eradication Initiative announced that it is seeking new commitments to fund its 2022-2026 Strategy. The new funding would support vaccinations of 370 million children annually for the next five years and continue global surveillance activities for polio and other diseases in 50 countries.

April 24, 2022 - The Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, the global immunization advisory body to the WHO, recently urged concerted action to eliminate wild polioviruses.

April 22, 2022 - A 15-month-old boy was paralyzed by type-1 wild poliovirus in the first such case in fifteen months. This is the third case of wild polio recorded globally in 2022.

April 15, 2022 - The WHO confirmed seven VDPV3 positives had been reported in Israel, including the index case and six asymptomatic children. Only one had incomplete polio immunization of these seven children, while the other six were unvaccinated. There were also two children where VDPV3 was detected using in-house molecular techniques.

April 13, 2022 - Israel's Health Ministry confirmed that its ongoing polio vaccination campaign would be expanding beyond Jerusalem and be offered to all children up to age 6. This program may reach about 2.5 million children in Israel.

April 12, 2022 - Israel's Ministry of Health confirmed that since 1988, there had not been any cases of infantile paralysis due to the poliovirus until 2022 when such a case was discovered in Jerusalem. The Ministry of Health announced that every parent must check the vaccination status of children under the age of 17 years and whether a complementary vaccine is needed. It is essential to know that children born between 2005 and 2013 did not get all the vaccine doses as part of the routine vaccination plan and are requested to complete their vaccines. 

April 6, 2022 - The Democratic Republic of Congo reported seven cVDPV2 cases, and Nigeria confirmed six cVDPV2 cases and seven positive environmental polio samples.

April 5, 2022 - Israel reports potentially eight polio cases in 2022.

March 29, 2022 - The Israeli Ministry of Health confirmed the 6th polio case in 2022.

March 23, 2022 - GPEI reported new polio cases - Niger: two cVDPV2 cases; Nigeria: two cVDPV2 cases; Yemen: three cVDPV2 cases.

March 20, 2022 - UNICEF reported about nine million children are to be vaccinated against polio in the first round of a mass campaign across four countries in Eastern and Southern Africa after an outbreak was confirmed in Malawi.  

March 17, 2022 - PLOS One published a Research Article - Use of oral polio vaccine and the incidence of COVID-19 globally. Conclusions: Countries using OPV have a lower incidence of COVID-19 than those using IPV. This might suggest that OPV may either prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection at the individual level or slow down the transmission at the community level.

March 16, 2022 - The GPEI reported new polio cases: DR Congo: three cVDPV2 cases; Nigeria: one cVDPV2 case.

March 14, 2022 - The Israeli Ministry of Health published a FAQ statement that included: in Israel, two types of polio vaccines are part of the routine immunization program for children: IPV - Inactivated Polio Vaccine; bOPV - Bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine.

March 10, 2022 - The WHO announced circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus was confirmed in Israel and the occupied Palestinian territory. In addition, the Israeli Ministry of Health reported various stool samples have tested positive near Jerusalem and have declared a polio outbreak.

March 8, 2022 - The ECDC reported Ukraine has considerable vulnerability to polio, particularly for children <6 years of age. Overall vaccination coverage for polio was 80% in 2021, which has not been exceeded in recent years. A national vaccination campaign began in February 2022 with injectable and oral polio vaccines.

Monday 7, 2022 - A case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 3 (cVDPV3) was confirmed in a young Israeli girl. The girl had developed acute flaccid paralysis upon testing her stool.

March 4, 2022 - Polio emergency response teams in Malawi are ramping up disease surveillance and deepening investigations after the country detected a case of wild poliovirus—the first of its kind in Africa since 2016. Determining the extent of the risk and searching for other cases are among the crucial steps for an effective response to halt the virus and protect children from its debilitating impact.

March 3, 2022 - Madagascar reported a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 case (cVDPV1) case from Anosy, the region in the southeastern part of the country. Madagascar had confirmed 13 cases in 2021 and a previous one in 2022.

February 23, 2022 - The GPEI reported new poliovirus cases: DR Congo: two cVDPV2 cases; Madagascar: two cVDPV1 cases; Malawi: one WPV1 case; Nigeria: three cVDPV2 cases; Yemen: three cVDPV2 cases,

February 22, 2022 - The U.S. CDC issued an Alert - Level 2, Practice Enhanced Precautions, for African countries currently at high risk for polio.

February 15, 2022 - A local article stated: The success of India's polio eradication program was based on three principles; bundling of health services, local stakeholder engagement, and putting in place accountability mechanisms. 

February 10, 2022 - The EMRO Regional Subcommittee on Polio Eradication and Outbreaks recently issued two statements, on the importance of achieving and sustaining a polio-free Eastern Mediterranean, specifically on stopping wild poliovirus transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan and preventing cVDPVs in Yemen.

February 9, 2022 - The GPEI reported Afghanistan's one WPV1 case in Paktika, making it the first case in 2022. There were four WPV1 cases reported in 2021, and the total number of cVDPV2 cases remains at 43.

January 26, 2022 - The GPEi reported new polio cases: DR Congo: two cVDPV2 cases; Nigeria: five cVDPV2 cases and 23 positive environmental samples; Ukraine: one cVDPV2 case.

January 19, 2022 - Nigeria reported ongoing cVDPV2 activity. The GPEI confirmed Nigeria's three new cases are included in the country's total for 2021, which now stands at 388.

January 12, 2022 - The GPEI reported DR Congo confirmed two cVDPV2 cases, and Yemen reported four cVDPV2 cases.

Polio Outbreaks

Poliovirus has been around since ancient times. The virus lives in an infected person's throat and intestines and spreads through person-to-person contact and other means. Countries infected with WPV1, cVDPV1, or cVDPV3, with the potential risk of international spread, include Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Malawi (WPV1), China (cVDPV3), Madagascar (cVDPV1), and Yemen (cVDPV1). The health authorities in Malawi declared an outbreak of wild poliovirus type 1 on February 17, 2022, and Pakistan launched its investigations on April 22, 2022. 

And the International Health Regulations National Focal Point for Israel notified WHO of the detection of cVDPV3 in the country on March 7, 2022. And the European CDC recently reported VDPV2 isolates found in the UK were genetically linked to VDPV2 isolated from a polio case that had been reported in July 2022 from New York, as well as to environmental samples collected in New York and greater Jerusalem, Israel.


Poliomyelitis Overview

Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease that primarily affects children five years and under. There are three strains of wild poliovirus (type 1, type 2, and type 3). In the USA, all infants and children should receive four doses of IPV at ages 2, 4, 6–18 months, and 4–6 years. The first dose may be given as early as six weeks of age. The final dose should be administered at four years or older, regardless of the number of previous doses, and should be given six months or more after the last dose. A fourth dose in the routine IPV series is unnecessary if the third dose was given at four years or older and six months or more after the previous dose.

Note: This content has been aggregated from the CDC, WHO, pharmaceutical vaccine producers, and the PrecisionVaccinations news network and reviewed by healthcare providers, such as Dr. Bob Carlson.