Like all vaccines under development, Chikungunya vaccine candidates investigate various technologies, such as live-attenuated virus vaccines, inactivated viral vaccines, recombinant viral vaccines, chimeric-alphavirus candidates, DNA vaccines, and virus-like particles (VLPs), which focus on optimizing the balance between immunogenicity and safety.
The ECDC reported on July 30, 2021, 85,304 Chikungunya cases have been reported in 2021, the majority from Brazil, India, Belize, Malaysia, and Peru.
As of September 25, 2021, the U.S. FDA has not approved a Chikungunya vaccine.
Chikungunya Vaccine Candidates
VLA1553 is a monovalent, single dose, live-attenuated vaccine candidate. VLA1553 is based on an infectious clone (CHIKV LR2006-OPY1) attenuated by deleting a major part of the gene encoding the non-structural replicase complex protein nsP3, aiming for protection against various Chikungunya virus outbreak phylogroups and strains. VLA1553 is showing fully sustained titers one year after a single vaccination. A total of 4,131 adults aged 18 or above have been recruited across 44 sites in the USA for the pivotal Phase 3 trial, VLA1553-301, which was launched in September 2020. If the trial results are positive, the trial is expected to support VLA1553's licensure, says Valneva SE.
CHIKV-VLP vaccine candidate is a multi-protein structure that mimics the organization and conformation of naturally occurring viruses without the viral genome, promoting a stronger immune response and increased antibody production. The CHIKV VLP vaccine candidate is licensed from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health. In addition, it received Fast Track designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in May 2018.
MV-CHIK is a Chikungunya vaccine candidate utilizing Themis' measles vector platform. MV-CHIK consists of a recombinant live Schwarz-strain measles-vectored vaccine expressing chikungunya virus structural proteins. In addition, Themis' vaccination vector has the ability to incorporate large recombinant genes coding for selected antigens into its genome.
mRNA-1944 encodes a fully human IgG antibody originally isolated from B cells of a patient with a prior history of potent immunity against Chikungunya infection. It comprises two mRNAs that encode this anti-Chikungunya antibody's heavy and light chains within lipid nanoparticle technology.