Like all vaccines under development, Chikungunya vaccine candidates investigate various technologies, such as live-attenuated virus vaccines, inactivated viral vaccine, recombinant viral vaccines, chimeric-alphavirus candidates, DNA vaccines, and virus-like particles (VLPs), which focus on optimizing the balance between immunogenicity and safety.
As of April 12, 2021, the U.S. FDA has not approved a Chikungunya vaccine.
Chikungunya Vaccine Candidates
VLA1553 is a monovalent, single dose, live-attenuated vaccine candidate. VLA1553 is based on an infectious clone (CHIKV LR2006-OPY1) attenuated by deleting a major part of the gene encoding the non-structural replicase complex protein nsP3, aiming for protection against various Chikungunya virus outbreak phylogroups and strains. VLA1553 is showing fully sustained titers one year after a single vaccination. A total of 4,131 adults aged 18 or above have been recruited across 44 sites in the USS for the pivotal Phase 3 trial, VLA1553-301, which was launched in September 2020. If the trial results are positive, the trial is expected to support VLA1553’s licensure, says Valneva SE.
Chikungunya Virus Virus-Like Particle (CHIKV-VLP) vaccines are multi-protein structures that mimic the organization and conformation of naturally occurring viruses without the viral genome, which could potentially promote a stronger immune response and increased antibody production. The CHIKV VLP vaccine candidate is licensed from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health. It received Fast Track designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in May 2018. A phase 2 study found that the CHIKV-VLP vaccine candidate produced 74 to 98 percent seroconversion across various dosing regimens. Previous studies have shown that VLP vaccines are highly immunogenic, have a proven safety record, and typically elicit high titer neutralizing antibodies needed to protect against the chikungunya virus.
MV-CHIK is a Chikungunya vaccine candidate utilizing Themis’ measles vector platform. MV-CHIK consists of a recombinant live Schwarz-strain measles-vectored vaccine expressing chikungunya virus structural proteins. Themis’ vaccination vector has the ability to incorporate large recombinant genes coding for selected antigens into its genome.
mRNA-1944 encodes a fully human IgG antibody originally isolated from B cells of a patient with a prior history of potent immunity against Chikungunya infection. It comprises two mRNAs that encode this anti-Chikungunya antibody's heavy and light chains within lipid nanoparticle technology.