Getting vaccinated against infectious diseases is one of the most effective ways to protect your health while traveling abroad. Most travel vaccines need to be administered at least 1-month before departure to ensure maximum protection, says the U.S. CDC.
Before international travel, speaking with a healthcare provider familiar with your destination vaccine requirements is advised. Furthermore, Hajj and Umrah 2021 travel vaccination information is published on this webpage.
Comirnaty Vaccine - Co-developed in Germany by Pfizer and BioNTech, is an mRNA vaccine that encodes an optimized SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike glycoprotein a 2-dose (0, 21d) regimen.
Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine - Developed in Massachusetts, is an mRNA vaccine candidate against the SARS-CoV-2 betacoronavirus encoding for a prefusion stabilized form of the Spike protein.
Sputnik V Vaccine - Developed in Russia, is an adenoviral-based vaccine that deploys two different adenovirus vectors (rAd26 and rAd5) for the first and second vaccination, boosting its effect.
VLA1553 is a monovalent, single dose, live-attenuated vaccine candidate conducting late-stage, phase 3 studies. Valneva SE's VLA1553 is currently the only chikungunya vaccine showing fully sustained titers 1-year after a single vaccination. If the trial results are positive, the trial is expected to support VLA1553’s licensure.
CHIKV-VLP Chikungunya vaccine candidate is a multi-protein structure that mimics the organization and conformation of naturally occurring viruses without the viral genome that could promote a stronger immune response and increased antibody production. The CHIKV VLP vaccine candidate is licensed from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
mRNA-1944 encodes a fully human IgG antibody originally isolated from B cells of a patient with a prior history of potent immunity against Chikungunya infection. It comprises two mRNAs that encode this anti-Chikungunya antibody's heavy and light chains within lipid nanoparticle technology.
Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV) is a live attenuated tetravalent chimeric vaccine made using recombinant DNA technology by replacing the PrM (pre-membrane) and E (envelope) structural genes of yellow fever attenuated 17D strain vaccine with those from the four dengue serotypes.
TAK-003 is an investigational live-attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine, preventing dengue fever caused by any of the four serotypes of the dengue virus, each of which can cause dengue fever or Severe Dengue.
Ervebo, Ebola Zaire Vaccine, Live, formerly known as V920, is a recombinant, replication-competent Ebola vaccine, consisting of a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which has been genetically engineered to express a glycoprotein from the Zaire ebolavirus to provoke a neutralizing immune response to the Ebola virus.
Ebola vaccine therapy consists of 2 components, Zabdeno (Ad26.ZEBOV) and Mvabea (MVA-BN-Filo). Zabdeno is given first, and Mvabea is administered approximately 8-weeks later as a booster. The prime-boost vaccination method is an established approach for preventing infectious diseases.
Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines
JENVAC is a single dose inactivated Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Vaccine. This Vero cell-derived vaccine is prepared from an Indian strain (Kolar- 821564XY) of the JE virus.
Ixiaro is an inactivated, adsorbed Vero cell culture-derived vaccine targeted against the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). It is prepared by propagating JEV strain SA14-14-2 in Vero cells.
Mosquirix (RTS, S/AS01) is a recombinant vaccine candidate consisting of the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) from the pre-erythrocytic stage.
M-M-R II vaccine is also known as Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, a live virus vaccine containing weakened forms of measles virus, mumps virus, and rubella virus. M-M-R II works by helping the immune system protect itself from these viruses.
Proquad vaccine is a combined, attenuated, live virus vaccine containing measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) viruses.
Priorix is currently licensed outside the USA in over 100 countries, and it is recommended for use in individuals aged ≥9 months, according to a 1- or 2-dose vaccination schedule depending on the country.
IPOL is a sterile suspension of three types of poliovirus: Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF-1), and Type 3 (Saukett). Sanofi Pasteur's single-antigen IPOL vaccine is a highly purified, inactivated poliovirus vaccine with enhanced potency.
Sabin Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV) is a liquid trivalent vaccine produced from Sabin poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 strains grown on Vero cells.
nOPV2 polio vaccine is derived from the live, infectious virus, but it has been ‘triple-locked using genetic engineering to prevent it from becoming harmful. nOPV2M4a is genetically more stable than existing OPVs, with a lower risk of reversion to neurovirulence.
RabAvert is a vaccine that contains an inactivated rabies antigen. The RabAvert vaccine is indicated for preexposure vaccination, both primary and booster doses, and for postexposure prophylaxis against rabies in all age groups.
Imovax is an inactivated vaccine made from an attenuated rabies virus. A sterile, stable, freeze-dried suspension of Rabies Vaccine Inactivated virus prepared from WISTAR Rabies PM/WI 38 1503-3M strain.
Vivotif oral vaccine (capsules) is indicated for immunization of adults and children greater than 6 years of age against disease caused by Salmonella Typhi. Vivotif Oral contains live bacteria called Salmonella typhi strain Ty21a, which does not cause typhoid fever.
YF-VAX Vaccine: YF-VAX is prepared by culturing the 17D-204 strain of yellow fever virus in living avian leukosis virus-free chicken embryos. The vaccine contains sorbitol and gelatin as a stabilizer, lyophilized, and hermetically sealed under nitrogen. No preservative is added. YF-Vax is licensed in the USA and expects to become available in late 2020.
Stamaril Vaccine: Stamaril is a live, attenuated yellow fever vaccine that contains the active substance Yellow fever virus 17D-204 strain produced in specified pathogen-free chick embryos. Stamaril has been offered in Europe and other countries for decades. Stamaril yellow fever vaccine is currently distributed in over 70 countries and is available in the USA during 2020.
Combination Travel Vaccines
Kinrix is a vaccine to prevent Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Pertussis, and Polio.
Pediarix is a vaccine containing noninfectious proteins from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis bacteria, hepatitis B virus, and inactivated polioviruses.
Travel Vaccine Overview
Vaccines protect travelers from illnesses that are usually travel-related. Specific vaccines are recommended depending on where and when a person is visiting. And personal factors, such as age and health status. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends international travelers are correctly immunized to protect their health, even if vaccinations aren't required for entry by the government of the country you are visiting.
About 90 million Americans traveled internationally during 2019. However, tens of millions of travelers were not appropriately vaccinated before departure. Furthermore, Last-Minute travelers (LMT) comprised 16% of all international travelers. And at least 1 travel vaccine was deferred by 18% of LMTs, because of insufficient time before departure.
Travel Vaccine FAQs
Frequently asked questions and answers related to travel vaccines are published by trusted sources, such as:
- Immunization Action Coalition
- US Health & Human Services
- US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- US Department of State
- World Health Organization
- UK National Health Service
Note: This content is aggregated from various news sources and vaccine research organizations and has been fact-checked by healthcare providers, such as Dr. Robert Carlson.