Currently, there are three WHO pre-qualified oral cholera vaccines (OCV): Dukoral®, Shanchol™, and Euvichol®, mainly used for travelers. All three vaccines require two doses for complete protection.
Dukoral® is administered with a buffer solution that, for adults, requires 150 ml of clean water. Dukoral can be given to all individuals over the age of 2 years. There must be a minimum of 7 days and no more than six weeks between each dose. Children aged 2-5 require a third dose.
Shanchol™ and Euvichol® are essentially the same vaccines produced by two different manufacturers. They do not require a buffer solution for administration. They are given to all individuals over the age of one year with a minimum of two weeks delay between each dose of these vaccines.
Two doses of Shanchol™ and Euvichol® protect against cholera for three years, while a single dose provides short-term protection. Shanchol™ and Euvichol® are the vaccines currently available for mass vaccination campaigns through the Global OCV Stockpile, supported by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.
A U.S. FDA-approved cholera vaccine is Vaxchora® (CVD 103-HgR), a live attenuated recombinant V. cholerae O1 Inaba Vaccine Strain CVD 103-HgR. The U.S. CDC Advisory Committee recommends Vaxchora for adult travelers aged 18 to 64 who visit an area of active cholera transmission.
Cholera Vaccination Campaigns
More than 20 million doses of OCVs have been used in mass vaccination campaigns. The campaigns have been implemented in areas experiencing an outbreak, at heightened vulnerability during humanitarian crises, and among populations living in highly endemic areas, known as “hotspots.”