Ebola Vaccines 2022

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Last reviewed
September 27, 2022

Ebola Vaccines 2022

Zaire Ebola vaccines have been approved by the U.S. FDA, European Medicines Agency (EMA), World Health Organization (WHO), and the U.K since 2019 to protect people from contracting the Ebola virus disease (EVD). Ebola vaccine technologies include replication-deficient adenovirus vectors, replication-competent vesicular stomatitis, human parainfluenza vectors, and virus-like nanoparticle preparations.

The U.S. CDC published the 'current state of Ebola vaccines on March 8, 2022, and the VIS was updated on June 30, 2022. The U.S. CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices extended its ERVEBO Zaire Ebolavirus vaccination recommendations on February 25, 2022, to include two other groups: healthcare personnel at specific pathogens treatment centers, laboratorians, and support staff at Laboratory Response Network facilities.

Zaire Ebolavirus Vaccines

Merck's Ervebo (rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP) is a recombinant, replication-competent Zaire Ebolavirus vaccine Approved by the U.S. FDA.

J&J's Ebola Vaccine Regimen Zabdeno and Mvabea is a prime-boost vaccination approach and contains an antigen from the Sudan species first approved by the EMA.

CanSinoBio's Ad5-EBOV is an adenovirus type 5 vector-based Zaire Ebola virus vaccine.

cAd3-EBOZ/MVA-BN-Filo was developed by the U.S. NIAID/NIH in collaboration with Okairos and is now licensed to the Sabin Vaccine Institute, which has licensed the cAd3 platform to develop vaccines against the Sudan virus. The vaccine platform is similar to Zabdeno/Mvabea; however, the first dose consists of an attenuated chimpanzee adenovirus to address issues associated with preexisting immunity to the vector, such as the case with Zabdeno. 

Sudan Ebolavirus Vaccine Candidates

As of September 27, 2022, there are no U.S. FDA-licensed vaccines against the Sudan virus (SUDV).

IAVI's rVSV Sudan ebolavirus vaccine candidate (rVSVΔG-SUDV-GP) is in the preclinical phase of the research stage and preparing for human clinical trials.

The University of Oxford ChAdOx1 biEBOV vaccine is targeted against the Zaire and Sudan species of Ebolavirus and is conducting a phase 1 study.

INOVA's INO-4201 is composed of a precisely designed DNA plasmid injected intradermally followed by electroporation using a proprietary smart device, which delivers the DNA plasmid directly into cells in the body and is intended to produce a well-tolerated immune response; currently conducting phase 1b clinical research.

GeoVax Labs, Inc.'s vectored vaccine MVA-VLP-SUDV was generated against Sudan ebolavirus, combining the advantages of the immunogenicity of a live attenuated vaccine vector (MVA) with the authentic conformation of virus-like particles. Data published on July 25, 2022, demonstrate single dose protection and potency of the MVA-VLP platform for use in emergency situations to contain outbreaks.

Human Monoclonal Antibody Treatment For Zaire Ebolavirus Infections

Ebanga (mAb114) is a human IgG1 MAb targeted to the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein, available in a lyophilized form.

On May 2, 2022, the U.S. FDA issued a priority review voucher for a material threat medical countermeasure (MCM) product application for INMAZEB (atoltivimab, maftivimab, and odesivimab-ebgn), Zaire ebolavirus, manufactured by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. As a result, the FDA approved Inmazed in October 2020.

Marburg Virus Vaccine Candidates

The U.S. FDA has not authorized Ebola vaccines for the prevention of Marburg Virus Disease (MVD) as of July 18, 2022. Marburgvirus has the potential to cause epidemics with significant case fatality rates, says the ECDC. Clinical diagnosis of MVD can be difficult since many of the signs and symptoms are comparable to those of other infectious diseases, such as EVD.

Ebola Vaccine and Treatment Availability

As of September 2022, Zaire Ebola vaccines and antibody treatments remain in limited distribution in the USA. Call your local or state health department for availability requirements.

Ebola Vaccine Price

The journal Infectious Diseases published 'Comparative value-based pricing of an Ebola vaccine in resource-constrained countries based on cost-effectiveness analysis on July 4, 2022. The UNICEF table shows awarded price per dose, product, supplier, and calendar year, based on a multi-year supply agreement.

Additional Ebola vaccine and therapy price information are posted at InstantRx™.

Long Ebola

Lingering symptoms have been reported by survivors of EVD. Major post-EVD symptoms are common early during convalescence and decline over time along with severity. However, even five years after acute infection, a majority continue to have Long-Ebola symptoms. In this study published in 2022, it was found that greater than 20% of EVD survivors develop hearing loss. The association between hearing impairment and symptoms affecting the eye and nervous system may indicate a similar mechanism of pathogenesis.

A study published in 2020 - Long-term Complications of Ebola Virus Disease: Prevalence and Predictors of Major Symptoms and the Role of Inflammation - reported that post-EVD complications occur in a majority of survivors and remain present more than four years after acute infection. An association between markers of inflammation and immune activation and individual symptoms was not found, suggesting an alternative etiology for persistent post-EVD symptomatology.

Ebola Vaccine News For 2021 - 2022

September 27, 2022 - The Democratic Republic of the Congo declared the end of a Zaire Ebolavirus outbreak that re-emerged in the country’s North Kivu Province in August 2022.

September 25, 2022 - The WHO reported a cumulative number of 18 confirmed and 18 probable cases of Sudan Ebolavirus had been reported from Mubende, Kyegegwa, and Kassanda districts in Uganda, including 23 deaths, of which five were among confirmed cases (CFR among confirmed cases 28%).

September 23, 2022 - The U.S. CDC issued a Watch - Level 1, Practice Usual Precautions, regarding the Sudan Ebolavirus outbreak in Uganda.

September 22, 2022 - The WHO/Africa reported seven cases, including one death, have been confirmed to have contracted the Sudan ebolavirus, and ten people suspected to have caught the virus.

September 20, 2022 - Uganda health authorities declared an outbreak of Ebola after the first case of the Sudan ebolavirus in ten years was confirmed in the Mubende district.

August 25, 2022 - WHO risk assessment - Preliminary information indicates that the first case was hospitalized at the health facility for 23 days without being diagnosed with EVD and died before EVD was confirmed by the laboratory. The risk at the national level (DRC) is assessed as high. The risk at the regional and global levels is assessed as moderate and low, respectively. 

August 23, 2022 - The WHO African Region announced the DRC declared a resurgence of Ebola, following confirmation of one case in North Kivu.

August 23, 2022 - The WHO confirmed that “Ebola resurgences are occurring with greater frequency in the DRC. However, health authorities in North Kivu have successfully stopped several Ebola flare-ups, and building on this expertise will no doubt bring this one under control quickly,” said Dr. Matshidiso Moeti. There are about 1,000 doses of the rVSV-ZEBOV Ebola vaccines available in the DRC's stockpile, 200 of which will be sent to Beni this week.

August 20, 2022 - Health authorities in the DRC are investigating a suspected case of Ebola virus disease in North Kivu province. The DRC's National Institute for Biomedical Research confirmed this Ebola case on August 22, 2022.

August 19, 2022 - The World Health Organization published the Ebola Virus Disease Clinical management containing the Organization’s most up-to-date recommendations for the clinical management of people with EVD, including two strong recommendations for the use of monoclonal antibody therapies.

July 31, 2022 - The response to the fourteenth Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has been extended one month. This extension will allow the National Society to continue tracing contact cases in these areas while ensuring the promotion of health and hygiene practices related to Ebola and the current Covid-19 pandemic, as well as the monitoring of events within affected and at-risk populations.

July 25, 2022 - NPJ Vaccines published: A single immunization with a modified vaccinia Ankara vectored vaccine producing Sudan virus-like particles protects from lethal infection. GeoVax’s vaccine, MVA-VLP-SUDV, combines the advantages of the immunogenicity of a live attenuated vaccine vector with the authentic conformation of virus-like particles.

July 7, 2022 - Emergent BioSolutions Inc. entered into an agreement with Ridgeback Biotherapeutics to expand the availability of Ebanga™ (Ansuvimab-zykl).

July 4, 2022 - "Thanks to the robust response by the national authorities, this outbreak has been brought to an end swiftly with the limited transmission of the ebolavirus," said Dr. Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa. "Crucial lessons have been learned from past outbreaks, and they have been applied to devise and deploy an ever more effective Ebola response." Between April 23 and July 3, 2022, a total of five deaths (case fatality ratio 100%), were reported in DRC's Equateur province.

June 3, 2022 - The WHO confirmed Ebola case is a 12-year-old male, detected on 19 May 2022 in Mama Balako Health Area, Wangata Health Zone in Mbandaka City, Equateur Province. The case was not a known contact before detection and had no history of vaccination against Ebola.

May 27, 2022 - Clinical Infectious Diseases published: Risk Factors for Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen of Survivors - Conclusions: Older age, decreased illness severity, elevated total serum IgG3, and HLA-C*03:04 allele expression may be risk factors for the persistence of EBOV in the semen of EVD survivors. 

May 20, 2022 - The DRC Tweeted a fourth fatal Ebola case was confirmed in the Equateur province.

May 18, 2022 - The U.S. CDC issued a Level 1 Travel Advisory for the Ebola outbreak in the DRC.

May 6, 2022 - The WHO Africa Tweeted all three Ebola patients who have died in Mbandaka, DRC.

May 5, 2022 - The WHO African Region reported three confirmed cases (2 deceased), 444 contacts identified, and 353 people vaccinated, including 253 contacts, all in Mbandaka, the DRC.

May 1, 2022 - Implementing a DHIS2 Ebola virus module during the 2021 Guinea Ebola outbreak.

April 26, 2022 - @WHOAFRO tweeted: Health authorities in DRC confirmed the 2nd case of Zaire Ebolavirus in Mbandaka. The 25-year-old woman, now deceased, began experiencing symptoms 12 days earlier. Investigations indicate she was the 1st fatal case patient's sister-in-law. At least 145 people came into contact with the confirmed cases.

April 24, 2022 - Ebola virus disease case in Equateur Province, DRC, represents a new spillover event. The man was vaccinated against the Ebola virus in 2020 and is not known to be an EVD survivor. 

April 23, 2022 - A new fatal case of Ebola has been confirmed in northwestern DRC. The health ministry said around 74 of his contacts are being tracked.

April 11, 2022 - Oxford University launched the first phase of its Zaire / Sudan Ebola vaccine trials at the end of 2021. A dental nurse became the first volunteer to get the vaccine candidate in the UK.

February 15, 2022 - GAVI wrote: 'Lessons from the DRC's 10th Ebola epidemic: the people may know best. International epidemic management involves ceding the foreign experts who possess, at best, a surface-level understanding of a very complex region.

February 9, 2022 - New non-human research in the Science Translational Medicine reported the Ebola virus persisted in the brains of seven monkeys, even after they received monoclonal antibodies. That persistence can harm the brain, leading to relapse and death in two of the animals. These findings have implications for long-term follow-up efforts to reduce the individual and public health consequences of viral persistence in survivors of EBOV infection.

February 8, 2022 - The peer-reviewed journal PNAS published a Research Article - Immunogenicity of rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP Ebola vaccination in exposed and potentially exposed persons in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Findings: At 21 d of follow-up, 87.2% had an antibody response. Additionally, 95.6% demonstrated antibody persistence at six mo of follow-up. 

December 16, 2021 - The WHO announced the Ebola outbreak that erupted in the Democratic Republic of the Congo's North Kivu Province in October – the second in 2021 – was today declared over. More than 1800 people were vaccinated in a campaign.

December 2, 2021 - Soligenix, Inc. announced 100% protection of non-human primates against lethal Sudan ebolavirus challenge using a bivalent, thermostabilized vaccine formulated in a single vial, reconstituted only with water immediately before use. 

November 16, 2021 - INOVIO that several volunteers have been dosed with its DNA-based, intradermal Ebola vaccine candidate, INO-4201, as part of a randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase 1b clinical trial that will assess whether INO-4201 can be used as a booster in healthy volunteers previously vaccinated with rVSV-ZEBOV (Ervebo).

November 11, 2021 - The University of Oxford began recruiting for a Phase I trial that will assess the immune response and safety of the new vaccine against the Zaire and Sudan species of Ebola. Participants will receive one dose of the ChAdOx1 biEBOV vaccine. Following vaccination, participants will be monitored through several visits over six months, with results expected in the second quarter of 2022. The vaccine is based on the ChAdOx1 virus, a weakened version of a common cold virus (adenovirus) that has been genetically modified so that it can't replicate in humans. Volunteers interested in enrolling in the study can do so online.

November 7, 2021 - The WHO Africa reported the overall case fatality rate (CFR) is 81.8% (9/11) and 75.0% (6/8) among confirmed cases in the recent Ebola outbreak in the DRC. Children under the age of five accounts for 50% (4/8) of the Ebola cases. A total of 485 persons have been vaccinated against EVD from the inception of the vaccination activities.

November 4, 2021 - The U.S. CDC published a Level Three Travel Advisory for the recent Ebola outbreak in the Beni Health Zone of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

November 3, 2021 - The U.S. CDC vaccine advisory committee reviewed previous recommendations for preexposure vaccination with Ervebo for adults aged ≥18 years in the U.S. population who are at the highest risk for potential occupational exposure to Ebola virus species Zaire ebolavirus because they are: responding to an outbreak of EVD, or work as health care personnel at federally designated Ebola treatment centers in the U.S., or work as laboratorians or other staff at biosafety level 4 facilities in the USA.

November 2, 2021 - The WHO reported additional cases and deaths confirmed in the Ebola virus disease outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with two new health areas affected. A total of 394 people (67 primary care providers, including nine high-risk contacts, nine contacts of contacts, and 49 probable contacts) have been vaccinated, including 182 contacts of contacts, 125 potential contacts, and 87 high-risk contacts.

October 29, 2021 - A Research Article - Safety and immunogenicity of 2-dose heterologous Ad26.ZEBOV, MVA-BN-Filo Ebola vaccination in healthy and HIV-infected adults: A randomized, placebo-controlled Phase II clinical trial in Africa - was published by the journal PLOS Medicine. Conclusion - The Ad26.ZEBOV and MVA-BN-Filo combo vaccination were well tolerated and immunogenic in healthy and HIV-infected African adults. Increasing the interval between vaccinations from 28 to 56 days improved the magnitude of humoral immune responses. However, antibody levels persisted for at least one year, and an Ad26. In addition, ZEBOV booster vaccination demonstrated the presence of vaccination-induced immune memory. These data supported the approval by the European Union for prophylaxis against EBOV disease in adults and children ≥1 year of age.

October 27, 2021 - IAVI announced an award of up to US$126 million from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority to develop two recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-vectored filovirus vaccine candidates. This award supports preclinical activities and includes options for clinical development, including a Phase II clinical trial of IAVI's rVSV Sudan ebolavirus vaccine candidate (rVSVΔG-SUDV-GP). In addition, optional work that would continue the development of IAVI's Marburg virus vaccine candidate (rVSVΔG-MARV-GP) currently supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense could be funded at a later date.

October 21, 2021 - The Sabin Vaccine Institute announced that the US Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority had exercised the third contract option, valued at $34.5 million, under the 2019 contract to advance the development of vaccines against Ebola Sudan and Marburg viruses through Phase 2 clinical trials.  

October 20, 2021 - The WHO African Region reported 5 Ebola cases, and over 27,000 travelers have been screened in the DRC. Furthermore, over 116 people have been vaccinated.

October 17, 2021 - Africa News reported Ebola vaccinations started in Beni, DRC, after at least two people died from the virus in October 2021. The WHO African Region Tweeted DRC Situation Report (17/10/21) 5 confirmed cases, three deaths, 369 contacts identified, and 308 contacts monitored.

October 13, 2021 - Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) health officials confirmed an Ebola vaccination campaign had launched in the North Kivu province, where one confirmed Ebola case, plus three related suspected deaths, were recently reported. About 1,000 doses of the rVSV-ZEBOV Ebola vaccine and other medical supplies were delivered from Kinshasa to Goma city in North Kivu. The DRC has more than 12,000 vaccine doses in Kinshasa that can be deployed if necessary.

October 10, 2021 - The WHO reported additional Ebola cases related to the recent DRC case of a 3-year-old boy. A cluster of three deaths (two children and their father) were neighbors of the case. These three patients died on 14, 19, and 29 September 2021 after developing symptoms consistent with Ebola. However, none were tested for the virus. As of October 9th, 148 contacts have been identified and are under follow-up by the local response team.

October 8, 2021 - A case of Ebola has been confirmed in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, five months after the end of the most recent Ebola outbreak there. The child died on October 6th. It was not immediately known if the Ebola case was related to the 2018-20 outbreak that killed more than 2,200 people in eastern Congo or the flare-up that killed six people in 2021.

September 13, 2021 - A new study based in Sierra Leone concluded the Ebola vaccine regimen from Janssen - J&J was found well tolerated with no safety concerns in children aged 1–17 years and induced robust humoral immune responses, suggesting the suitability of this regimen for Ebola virus disease prevention in children.

August 31, 2021 - The government of Cote d'Ivoire has informed the WHO that a second laboratory has tested samples from a patient suspected of having Ebola and has found no evidence of the virus. Around a dozen WHO experts were mobilized to support the country's efforts, and 5,000 Ebola vaccine doses that the WHO had helped Guinea procure were sent from Guinea to Cote d'Ivoire.

August 23, 2021 - The WHO African region reported Ebola booster dose vaccinations in Sierra Leone following the administration of the prime dose of the Johnson & Johnson Ebola vaccine in May 2021. Frontline health workers, practitioners of traditional medicines or traditional healers, and commercial motorbike riders who received the first dose are now given their second jab to maximize their protection against the disease. 

August 17, 2021 - The WHO confirmed Cote d'Ivoire deployed 2,000 vaccine doses from Merck and around 3,000 vaccine doses manufactured by Johnson & Johnson - Janssen.

August 14, 2021 - The WHO Africa reported the Ministry of Health of Cote d'Ivoire today confirmed the country's first case of Ebola since 1994. This came after the Institut Pasteur in Cote d'Ivoire confirmed the Ebola Virus Disease in samples collected from a patient hospitalized in Abidjan's commercial capital after arriving from Guinea.

August 9, 2021 - The WHO confirmed that 'Marburg virus disease (MVD) is a highly virulent, epidemic-prone disease associated with high case fatality rates (CFR 24-90%). In the early course of the disease, the clinical diagnosis of MVD is difficult to distinguish from other tropical febrile illnesses because of the similarities in the clinical symptoms. Differential diagnoses to be excluded include Ebola virus disease and malaria, typhoid fever, leptospirosis, rickettsial infection, and plague.'

July 6, 2021 - New York-based Mount Sinai researchers uncovered the complex cellular mechanisms of the Ebola virus, which could help explain its severe toll on humans and identify potential pathways to treatment and prevention. The study team reported how a protein of the Ebola virus, VP24, interacts with the double-layered membrane of the cell nucleus, leading to significant damage to cells and virus replication and the propagation of disease. 

June 15, 2021 - The Southwest National Primate Research Center at Texas Biomedical Research Institute (Texas Biomed) has been awarded more than $37 million from the U.S. National Institutes of Health to continue operations into 2026. The P51 grant, given by the NIH Office of Research Infrastructure Programs, provides essential funding to house and care for nearly 2,500 non-human primates that are part of life-science research programs at Texas Biomed and partners around the globe.

June 4, 2021 - Johnson & Johnson welcomed a new recommendation by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization for the WHO that supports the use of the Johnson & Johnson Ebola vaccine regimen both during outbreaks for individuals at some risk of Ebola exposure and preventively, in the absence of an epidemic, for national and international first responders in neighboring areas or countries where an outbreak might spread.

June 4, 2021 - J&J confirmed about 235,000 people had received at least the first dose of the Janssen two-dose Ebola vaccine regimen.

April 10, 2021 - The government of Sierra Leone and the WHO announced Johnson & Johnson had donated about 4,500 Zabdeno and Mvabea Ebola vaccines to Sierra Leone to help prevent any Ebola outbreak. The last Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone was in 2016.

April 6, 2021 - Denmark-based Bavarian Nordic A/S announced the Company had received a new supply order from Janssen Pharmaceutica NV valued at approximately USD 28 million. Under the contract, Bavarian Nordic will manufacture and deliver bulk drug substance of MVA-BN® Filo vaccine, licensed to Janssen as part of its Ebola vaccine regimen, Zabdeno® (Ad26.ZEBOV) and Mvabea® (MVA-BN Filo). The bulk drug substance manufacturing will begin in May 2021, and delivery is expected to occur in the second half of 2021.

March 25, 2021 - Ohio Gov. Mike DeWine revealed health officials are monitoring 44 people who have returned from areas of Africa with active outbreaks of Ebola.

March 25, 2021 - Oregon public health officials announced they are monitoring four people who recently visited the West African countries of Guinea and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Regions in each of these countries are currently experiencing outbreaks of Ebola virus disease. The Oregon Health Authority and local public health departments have been in contact with these individuals, considered "persons under monitoring," since they arrived in the state earlier in March 2021.

March 23, 2021 - The WHO African Region Tweeted Guinea Ebola outbreak Situation Report (22/03/21) 18 cases, nine deaths, 78 contacts, 82% monitored. And 3,905 people have been vaccinated.

March 13, 2021 - After a request from the Guinean authorities, Russia is considering supplying a domestic vaccine against the Ebola virus to the African country, reported TASS.

March 13, 2021 - The ECDC reported the results from genome sequencing confirmed that the first cases were infected with the Zaire ebolavirus species and suggested that the ongoing outbreak is genetically linked to the 10th EVD outbreak that occurred between 2018 and 2020 in the North Kivu and Ituri provinces in the DRC. However, the source of infection of the index case is currently unknown, and investigations are ongoing.

March 12, 2021 - The U.S. CDC issued a Warning - Level 3, Avoid Nonessential Travel, for the DRC. If your job requires possible exposure to Ebola, get vaccinated. On January 8, 2021, the CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended preexposure prophylaxis vaccination with rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP (Ervebo™) for adults ≥ 18 years of age U.S. population at highest risk for potential occupational exposure to Ebola virus species Zaire ebolavirus.

March 5, 2021 - The Lancet published a study on infectious disease outbreaks exposing shortcomings in healthcare systems. The Ebola outbreak pointed to gaps in training and resources as not all U.S. hospitals were ready and equipped to manage a patient with suspected or confirmed Ebola. During the 2014–16 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, academic (medical and public health) institutions worldwide contributed faculty and staff to respond.

February 25, 2021 - The U.S. CDC's vaccine advisory committee discussed Ebola vaccine status and options.

February 10, 2021 - In this study published by PLOS, researchers observed that EBOV RNA persistence in semen was a frequent phenomenon, with high population rates over time. This finding will inform forthcoming updated recommendations on risk reduction strategies relating to sexual transmission of EBOV. In addition, these findings support the implementation of a semen testing program as part of epidemic preparedness and response. Further, the results will enable planning of the magnitude of testing and targeted counseling needs over time.

February 3, 2021 - The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) Crisis Response Plan 2021. The International Organization for Migration (IOM), in collaboration with its partners and other crisis response actors, seeks to provide urgently needed multisectoral humanitarian assistance, stabilization, and recovery support to conflict-affected populations in the DRC. IOM will also support the government in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic and post-Ebola stabilization efforts and strengthening preparedness for future public health hazards. Considering the many requests for accurate displacement data in the DRC, IOM also aims to expand the scope of its Displacement Tracking Matrix interventions to cover the entire country, including monitoring population mobility to inform the outbreak preparedness and response.

January 29, 2021 - Ebola Situation Report #37: Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) - The Ebola outbreak in the northeast of the DRC, the country's 10th and second-largest in world history, claimed the lives of 2,287 of the 3,324 patients affected. The 11th outbreak in Équateur Province affected 13 of the province's 18 health zones, with 130 confirmed cases and 55 deaths. The introduction of an Ebola vaccine in the DRC in 2018 enabled the country to mitigate the last three outbreaks. About 372,800 people have been vaccinated against Ebola (including 39,859 in Équateur province).

January 27, 2021 - Study: Ebola virus antibody decay–stimulation in a high proportion of survivors. The most increased antibody reactivity was observed around 200 days after an individual had recovered. The model suggests that EBOV antibody reactivity declines over 0.5–2 years after recovery. In a high proportion of healthy survivors, antibody responses undergo rapid restimulation. Vigilant follow-up of survivors and possible elective de novo antigenic stimulation by vaccine immunization should be considered to prevent EBOV viral recrudescence in recovering individuals and mitigate the potential risk of reseeding an outbreak.

January 12, 2021 - A global emergency stockpile of 500,000 doses of Ebola vaccine, funded by Gavi, will be available to all countries for outbreak response following a procurement process concluded by UNICEF with a vaccine manufacturer. Gavi-eligible low- and lower-middle-income countries will access the stockpile free of charge. In addition, they will receive support for operational costs to conduct outbreak response immunization activities. The reserve will include licensed doses of the Ebola vaccine manufactured by MSD, known as Merck, in the USA and Canada, which has received approval from the European Medicines Agency and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for prequalification from WHO. The first delivery of doses into the stockpile is funded through a $20 million contribution from the United States Agency for International Development, committed in 2017 and dedicated to supporting a supply of licensed Ebola vaccines to help tackle future disease outbreaks.

January 12, 2021 - Today, four leading international health and humanitarian organizations announced a global Ebola vaccine stockpile to ensure outbreak response. With the support of humanitarian organizations, the supply will allow countries to contain future Ebola epidemics by providing timely access to vaccines for populations at risk during outbreaks. The injectable single-dose Ebola vaccine Ervebo (rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP, live) is manufactured by Merck and developed with financial support from the U.S. government. The European Medicines Agency licensed the Ervebo vaccine in November 2019. The vaccine is now prequalified by WHO and approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and eight African countries.

January 8, 2021 - The U.S. CDC published Use of Ebola Vaccine: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, United States, 2020. The ACIP recommends preexposure vaccination with Ervebo for adults aged ≥18 years in the U.S. population who are at the highest risk for potential occupational exposure to Ebola virus species Zaire ebolavirus because they are responding to an outbreak of EVD, work as health care personnel at federally designated Ebola treatment centers in the United States, or work as laboratorians or other staff at biosafety level 4 facilities in the United States.

International Coordinating Group on Vaccine Provision

Leading international health and humanitarian organizations announced a global Ebola vaccine stockpile to ensure outbreak response. The ICG was created as an additional tool to help control Ebola outbreaks. Ebola outbreaks are relatively rare and unpredictable, and due to limited vaccine quantities, the current Ervebo vaccine is reserved for outbreak response. An initial 6,890 doses will be made available on a priority basis for outbreak response starting January 12, 2021. To request access to ICG stocks, national or international health authorities should submit an application form to the ICG Secretariat or an ICG member agency in the country.

Ebola Antivirals

There are two antiviral treatments authorized to treat EVD, says the CDC. On October 14, 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved an antibody cocktail from Regeneron that's been shown to reduce Ebola-related mortality rates. The treatment, known as REGN-EB3, is a mixture of (3) monoclonal antibodies (atoltivimab, maftivimab, and odesivimab-ebgn) and is marketed under the brand name Inmazeb. Inmazeb is indicated to treat infection caused by Zaire ebolavirus in adult and pediatric patients, including neonates born to a mother who is RT-PCR positive for Zaire ebolavirus infection.

On December 22, 2020, Ridgeback Biotherapeutics L.P. confirmed that the U.S. FDA approved Ebanga to treat Ebola. Ebanga is now approved to treat infections caused by Zaire ebolavirus in adult and pediatric patients.

Note:  Content Sources for this page include the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Precision Vaccinations news network. Dr. Robert Carlson has reviewed this information.