Mpox Outbreak 2023

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Last reviewed
February 3, 2023
Content Overview
Mpox cases continue in 2023, primarily in the Americas and Spain. Mpox vaccines remain available in outbreak countries.

Mpox Outbreak 2023

The World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) regarding mpox virus (MPXV) outbreaks on July 23, 2022. Of 110 countries that have reported Mpox cases since May 2022, 78 have gone without a new case for 21 days, the maximum incubation period for an outbreak.

The WHO published a Multi-country Mpox outbreak, External situation report #15, on February 2, 2023, confirming Mpox cases have recently increased by 716 new cases (0.8% increase in total cases), and nine new deaths have been reported. And in Europe, the five countries reporting the most Mpox cases since the start of the outbreak are Spain (7,528), France (4,127), Germany (3,676), Netherlands (1,260), and Italy (954).

On January 31, 2023, the U.S. HHS did not renew the public health emergency declaration for Mpox, given the low number of cases in 2023. An outbreak was first declared in August 2022 and renewed in November 2022. On October 27, 2022, the Mpox public health emergency in San Francisco ended, followed by New York City in November 2022. The CDC posted an explanatory Mpox vaccination video on Twitter on January 20, 2023. 

The WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) previously noted that the first Mpox specimen identified through retrospective testing in the United Kingdom was on March 7, 2022. On November 23, 2022, the updated ECDC risk assessment and the declining number of new infections, the overall risk of Mpox infection is assessed as moderate for men (MSM) and low for the broader population. As of January 18, 2023, Mpox cases have been reported from 14 European countries, including Spain, Italy, and Sweden.

On November 28, 2022, the WHO recommended changing the disease name to Mpox.

Mpox in the U.S.

The U.S. confirmed its initial Mpox case in Massachusetts in late May 2022. The U.S. government announced its Mpox Vaccine Strategy on June 28, 2022. In response to the ongoing outbreak, the U.S. administration declared a Public Health Emergency regarding the ongoing Mpox outbreak.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that as of January 18, 2023, 30,026 Mpox cases and 26 related fatalities had been confirmed since May 2022. As a result, the U.S. CDC updated the 2022 Mpox Outbreak Global Map 2022, The CDC updated an Alert - Level 2, Practice Enhanced Precautions, on August 8, 2022, to alert international travelers regarding Mpox outbreaks.

Mpox Cases International

The ECDC and the WHO Regional Office for Europe published an updated Mpox Surveillance Report. In addition, the Lancet Infectious Disease published a study on October 7, 2022, that found a significant proportion of patients reported attending gatherings before developing Mpox symptoms. Of 161 patients with available information, 23% met their sexual partners at such meetings, including the Maspalomas Festival on Spain's Gran Canaria island in May 2022.

Mpox in Africa

Africa's CDC confirmed since the beginning of 2022, a total of 2,031 cases (250 confirmed; 1,781 suspected) and 75 deaths (CFR: 3.7%) of monkeypox had been reported by nine endemic and two non-endemic AU MS as of July 25, 2022. The first human case of Mpox was identified in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1970. The WHO agreed that Clade II consists of 2 subclades, Clade IIa, and Clade IIb. Each of the clades and subclades subdivides into multiple lineages. 

The CDC issued Level 1 travel advisories in 2021 to alert international travelers regarding Mpox outbreaks in African countries.

Mpox in Canada

On December 13, 2022, the Annals of Internal Medicine journal reported that as of mid-October 2022, 402 cases of mpox were reported, mainly among MSM, most of which were suspected to be acquired through sexual contact. All mpox genomes nested within the B.1 lineage. Montréal Public Health worked closely with the affected communities to control the outbreak, becoming the first jurisdiction to offer one dose of the Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic (Jynneos) vaccine as preexposure prophylaxis to at-risk people in early June 2022. As a result, two peaks of cases were seen in early June and July (43 and 44 cases per week, respectively), followed by a decline toward near resolution of the outbreak in October 2022.

Mpox in India

A total of 23 confirmed cases of Mpox have been reported in India as of December 8, 2022, according to the Minister of State for Health Bharati Pravin Pawar.

Mpox in the U.K.

The U.K. Health Services Agency (UKHSA) began reporting MPV cases in early May 2022. In addition, the UKHSA published that the monkeypox clade of monkeypox predominantly circulating in the U.K. (Clade IIb, B.1 lineage) is no longer classified as a High Consequence of Infectious Disease (HCID). As of November 21, 2022, 3,570 confirmed and 150 highly probable MPX cases were detected in the U.K. Of these, 96 were in Scotland, 34 were in Northern Ireland, 47 were in Wales, and 3,543 were in England.

Mpox Vaccines

Various monkeypox vaccine updates are posted at

Mpox Treatments

The U.S. CDC, UKHSA, and the EMA have authorized monkeypox treatments, such as TPOXX, listed on this webpage.

Mpox Testing

The Monkeypox virus is part of the same family of viruses as smallpox and can be detected by diagnostic testing. Visit Monkeypox Testing for more information.

Mpox Isolation

In August 2022, the CDC recommended that people with monkeypox remain isolated at home or another location for the duration of their illness. 

Mpox Clinical Research

Numerous researchers on this webpage are clinically reviewing the current monkeypox outbreak. 

Mpox in Women

Eurosurveillance published a study on December 1, 2022, on Mpox infections in 158 women. In Spain, 7,393 confirmed cases of Mpox, 2.1% of cases (158) have been in women diagnosed between Apr 26 and Nov 21, 2022. The average age of female patients was 34 years, and two were pregnant at the time of Mpox infection. The most likely transmission mechanism was close contact during sexual relationships. 

Mpox in Children, Adolescents, and College

As of December 2022, the U.S. CDC says the risk of monkeypox to children and adolescents in the USA is low. However, this page answers FAQs about monkeypox for school administrators and staff. In addition, higher education institutions can prepare by understanding the guidance on congregate settings and by ensuring their student health center is aware of the guidelines for healthcare professionals.

Mpox Virus Disease

The mpox virus, a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae, causes mpox. The mpox virus has identified two distinct genetic clades of the Congo Basin and the West African clades. The Mpox virus is transmitted from one person to another by contact with lesions, body fluids, respiratory droplets, and contaminated materials, says the WHO.