Polio can be prevented with a vaccine. Since 2000, the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is the only polio vaccine that has been given in the USA. It is given by a shot in the arm or leg, depending on the person’s age. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is used in other countries.
As of September 8, 2020, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) map indicates various countries continue to report new poliovirus cases. The launch of the GPEI in 1988 successfully decreased wild poliovirus cases by over 99%.
U.S. FDA Authorized Polio Vaccines
IPOL is a sterile suspension of three types of poliovirus: Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF-1), and Type 3 (Saukett). IPOL vaccine is a highly purified, inactivated poliovirus vaccine with enhanced potency that is administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously.
Orimune is a liquid oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) that is taken by mouth to help prevent polio infection.
Orimune contains live attenuated Sabin strain types 1,2, and 3.
Combination Polio Vaccines
Kinrix (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine) is a noninfectious, sterile vaccine.
Pediarix is a vaccine indicated for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and infection caused by all known subtypes of hepatitis B virus and poliomyelitis.
Quadracel contains diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis [pertussis toxoid (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM)], inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine.
Pentacel is indicated for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and invasive disease due to H influenzae type b. Pentacel vaccine is approved for use as a 4-dose series in children 6 weeks through 4 years of age (prior to the fifth birthday).
All combination vaccines that also protect disease from Polio include the three types of poliovirus: Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF-1), and Type 3 (Saukett).
nOPV2 Vaccine Candidate
The GPEI established a novel oral polio vaccine type 2 (nOPV2) Working Group to manage and coordinate the rapid and effective rollout of nOPV2. The vaccine is a modified version of the existing type 2 monovalent OPV (mOPV2), that clinical trials have shown provides comparable protection against poliovirus while being more genetically stable and less likely to revert into a form which can cause paralysis.
The vaccine’s increased genetic stability means there is a reduced risk of seeding new cVDPV2 outbreaks compared to mOPV2. nOPV2 is being considered for deployment under WHO’s Emergency Use Listing procedure to enable rapid field availability.
The first-in-human clinical trial was conducted in 2017 at the University of Antwerp and found nOPV2 to be safe and effective in providing immunity against polio. The Lancet published these findings on June 4, 2019.
Poliomyelitis (polio) Overview
Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease that primarily affects children 5 years of age and under. There are 3 strains of wild poliovirus (type 1, type 2, and type 3).
Wild poliovirus type 2 was eradicated in 1999 and no case of wild poliovirus type 3 has been found since the last reported case in Nigeria in November 2012. Both strains have officially been certified as globally eradicated.
As of 2020, wild poliovirus type 1 is still found in two countries: Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Polio is transmitted person-to-person, mainly through the fecal-oral route or, less frequently by consuming contaminated food or water. The virus multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system and cause paralysis. Initial symptoms are fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, and stiffness in the neck and pain in the limbs.
One in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis (usually in the legs). Among those paralyzed, 5% to 10% die when their breathing muscles become immobilized, says Sanofi.
Note: This content has been aggregated from the CDC, WHO, pharmaceutical vaccine producers, and the PrecisionVaccinations news network, and has been reviewed by healthcare providers, such as Dr, Bob Carlson.