The U.S. CDC recommends typhoid vaccination for people traveling to places where typhoid fever is common, such as South Asia, especially India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. However, typhoid vaccines are not 100% effective, so travelers should practice safe eating and drinking habits to help prevent infection.
In the USA, two types of typhoid fever vaccines are available.
Oral vaccine: Can be given to people at least six years old. It consists of four pills taken every other day, should be finished at least one week before travel and requires a booster every five years.
Injectable vaccine: Can be given to people at least two years old and should be given at least two weeks before travel, and requires a booster every two years
If you were vaccinated in the past, ask your doctor or pharmacist if it is time for booster vaccination, says the CDC.
Bharat Biotech International's Typbar TCV is a vaccine containing polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi Ty2 conjugated to Tetanus Toxoid.
Sanofi Pasteur's Typhim VI is a sterile solution prepared from the purified polysaccharide capsule of Salmonella typhi (Ty 2 strain).
Emergent BioSolutions' Vivotif oral vaccine is indicated for immunization of adults and children over six years of age against disease caused by Salmonella Typhi.
Typhoid Fever Vaccine Research
September 1, 2022 - The Lancet Global Health published a study: Safety and immunogenicity of a typhoid conjugate vaccine among children aged 9 months to 12 years in Malawi: a nested substudy of a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Interpretation - This study provides evidence of TCV safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity up to 730–1035 days in Malawian children aged 9 months to 12 years.
June 21, 2022 - The peer-review journal The Lancet Microbe published - The international and intercontinental spread and expansion of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella Typhi: a genomic epidemiology study, which found evidence of frequent international and intercontinental transfers of antimicrobial-resistant S Typhi, followed by local expansion and replacement of drug-susceptible clades. This study shows how typhoid-resistant strains originally from Southern Asia have spread to other countries almost 200 times since 1990.
September 16, 2021 - Study results: typhoid conjugate vaccines are highly effective in African children. Those children who had received TCV were 84% less likely to contract typhoid during that time.
July 29, 2022 - Review on the Recent Advances on Typhoid Vaccine Development and Challenges Ahead.
October 30, 2019 - Clinical Infectious Disease published - The Severe Typhoid Fever in Africa Program: Study Design and Methodology to Assess Disease Severity, Host Immunity, and Carriage Associated With Invasive Salmonellosis - Currently available typhoid vaccines include the parenteral unconjugated Vi polysaccharide and oral live-attenuated Ty21a vaccines, both of which have been recommended by the WHO since 2008, and parenteral typhoid conjugate vaccine, which was prequalified by the WHO in December 2017.