Yellow Fever Vaccines 2023

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Last reviewed
February 3, 2023
Content Overview
Yellow fever vaccines are approved for people visiting counties in South America, Africa and Asia. Yellow fever is a vaccine preventable disease.

Yellow Fever Vaccines

Effective yellow fever vaccines have been available for over 80 years. The 17D yellow fever vaccine was approved for human use in 1938 and is still in use today, with about 850 million doses distributed worldwide, reported the peer-review journal Nature.  In addition, the Eliminate Yellow fever Epidemics (EYE), driven by Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), seeks to vaccinate nearly one billion people by 2026.

Yellow Fever Vaccine Availablity 2023

YF-VAX® vaccine is available at most travel vaccine clinics and pharmacies and is licensed in the U.S. (BL 103915).

Stamaril® vaccine is available internationally in AfricaAustralia, BarbadosBrazil, the CaribbeanCanada, Chile, Costa Rica, the DRC, EcuadorGermanyIndiaIndonesiaJamaica, Kenya, NigeriaNorthern IrelandMexicoPhilippines, PeruScotlandSingaporeVenezuela, and the U.K. However, it is considered investigational and not available in the U.S.

RegaVax is a vaccine candidate using the yellow fever vaccine virus's genetic code as a carrier (or vector) for the coronavirus spikes' genetic code.

Najít Technologies HydroVax-002 YFV is a Novel Inactivated Yellow Fever vaccine candidate conducting phase 1 clinical research with the NIH, evaluating dosages of 1 mcg and five mcg was given intramuscularly on Day 1 and Day 29.

Yellow Fever Vaccine Indication

And according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO), yellow fever vaccination is recommended for people aged nine months or older and traveling to or living in areas at risk for the yellow fever virus. A single dose of the yellow fever vaccine promotes sustained immunity for about 90% of people vaccinated within ten days, says the WHO. In January 2023, the CDC confirmed yellow fever vaccines could be administered at any time before, concurrent with, or after administering any antibody-containing preparation. And a yellow fever vaccine booster dose is unnecessary

Yellow Fever Vaccination Requirements

The International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP), known as the yellow card, is required to enter certain countries. For example, in the U.S., vaccinated people receive a yellow fever card (ICVP) to prove they recently had a yellow fever vaccine. Forty-seven countries in Africa (34) and Central and South America (13) are either endemic or have yellow fever endemic regions, says the WHO. For specific information on ICVP entry requirements, please see the individual country pages, such as Argentina, AngolaBoliviaBrazil, EcuadorGhana, Kenya, Paraguay, Rwanda, and Uganda. In addition, ICVP requirements are contained in the WHO's Country List.

The U.K.'s National Health Service (NHS) says yellow fever vaccination might still be recommended, even if an outbreak has not been declared. An interactive world map showing travel recommendations by destination and yellow fever vaccination requirements for specific countries is available on the CDC Travelers' Health webpage

Yellow Fever Vaccine Fractional Dosage

The peer-review journal The Lancet published results from a clinical study in January 2021 (updated Feb. 2022, concluding, 'Fractional doses of all WHO-prequalified yellow fever vaccines were non-inferior to the standard dose in inducing seroconversion 28 days after vaccination, with no major safety concerns. These results support using fractional dosage in the general adult population for outbreak response in a vaccine shortage.' The WHO's initial position on fractional yellow fever vaccine was set out in the 2013 WHO position paper.

Yellow Fever Monoclonal Antibody Treatment

The TY014 treatment candidate is directed against the envelope protein on the surface of the Yellow Fever virus and prevents viral replication by limiting viral fusion to host cells. Tysana Pte Ltd is currently conducting a phase 1 study on humans.

Yellow Fever Vaccine Price

The CDC's Vaccines For Children program provides vaccines at no cost to children. Additionally, UNICEF publishes vaccine prices for children. As is the Stamaril vaccine price, outside of the U.S., Sanofi's Patient Connection® offers various vaccine price savings. In addition, Sanofi has live support specialists at (800) 633-1610 to answer patients' questions. 

Various pharmacies and services indicate the YF-Vax vaccine price is over $150. And InstantRx™ is a digital gateway empowering people to find lower-priced vaccines easily.

Yellow Fever Travel Advisories

The U.S. CDC and the U.K. Travel Health Advice recently issued yellow fever Travel Advisories for KenyaGhanaNigeria, and Brazil. In addition, since September 2021, thirteen countries in the WHO African Region (Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, and the Republic of Congo have reported human laboratory-confirmed cases of yellow fever. From January 2021 to December 19, 2022, a total of 203 confirmed and 252 probable cases, with 40 deaths (CFR 9%), have been reported to the WHO from countries in the WHO African Region. On January 15, 2023, one yellow fever fatality was confirmed in Guinea. 

The most significant yellow fever outbreak of the last 50 years in the Americas occurred in Brazil, with transmission outside the Amazon region generating 2,154 cases and 745 deaths between 2016 and 2018.

Yellow Fever Vaccine News For 2008 - 2023

January 3, 2023 - The WHO African Region confirmed in 2021, routine immunization coverage against yellow fever in the African Region for childhood vaccinations was 48%.

November 18, 2022 - The WHO published an updated Country List identifying current yellow fever vaccination requirements.

October 20 - 2022 - The Office of the Republic of Uganda Elegu Border Post management and other stakeholders launched the yellow fever vaccination online verification system at Elegu Point of Entrd in Amuru district in Northern Uganda.

September 22, 2022 - All travelers between the ages of one and 59 arriving from or departing for Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, or Venezuela must present a yellow fever vaccination certificate to enter or exit Paraguay.

September 2, 2022 - According to the WHO's EYE strategy, twenty-seven African countries are at high risk for yellow fever. Since late 2021, the situation has intensified, with 12 countries reporting probable and confirmed cases. As a result, the WHO assesses the risk at the African regional level to be high. 

August 5, 2022 - The Republic of the Congo launched a preventive mass vaccination campaign to vaccinate more than 93% of the (4 million) population against yellow fever.

July 30, 2022 - The peer-review journal Vaccine published: Previous biological therapy and impairment of the IFN-γ/IL-10 axis are associated with an inadequate immune response to 17DD-YF vaccination in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). The use of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs lowered immune responsiveness to 17DD-YF vaccination yellow fever in patients with spondyloarthritis. Therefore, the inflammatory status before vaccination and impairment of the IFN-γ/IL-10 axis at the peak of viremia may determine the immunogenicity of the 17DD-YF immunization in patients with SpA.

July 21, 2022 - Gavi published: Routine vaccines, extraordinary impact: Yellow fever.

July 11, 2022 - In a non-peer-reviewed study, researchers in Europe performed an open-label, non-randomized clinical trial studying the safety and immunogenicity following concurrent delivery of the Yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine with Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (J.E.) virus vaccines. Conclusions: Inactivated TBEV or JEV vaccines can be coadministered with the live attenuated YFV vaccine without an increased risk of adverse events and reduced developing nAbs to the respective viruses.

May 26, 2022 - The PAHO reported cases of yellow fever had been registered in three countries in the South America Region during 2022: Bolivia (5), Brazil (3), and Peru (2). Similarly, PAHO/WHO recommends that the Member States have yellow fever vaccine reserve stockpiles, depending on the availability of vaccines in the country, which will allow for responding to potential outbreaks.

April 7, 2022 - Emergex Vaccines Holding Limited announced an agreement with ATCC to progress the preclinical development of its T-Cell Yellow Fever booster vaccine candidate.

March 18, 2022 - Rwanda's Ministry of Health announced all residents and visitors traveling to yellow fever-endemic countries should be vaccinated at least ten days before traveling.

February 11, 2022 - Paraguay's authorities confirmed proof that yellow fever vaccination is required for travelers arriving from or leaving Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela.

January 22, 2022 - The Costa Rica Ministry of Health confirmed the Yellow Fever vaccine will not be available until late February 2022.

November 16, 2021 - The U.K. published a pre-vaccination checklist to ensure the yellow fever vaccine is indicated for the intended travel destination and enable vaccinators to identify existing contraindications or precautions.

September 12, 2021 - People in Taiwan can get inoculated against yellow fever for free through November 2021.

April 5, 2021 - Sanofi Pasteur announced that YF-VAX is again available in the USA. Providers with a current Yellow Fever Vaccination Stamp may now order YF-VAX vaccines.

March 9, 2021 - The Canadian Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel issued a statement confirming fractional dosing is no longer valid as the shortage of the Yellow Fever vaccine has been lifted.

March 7, 2021 - In a recent paper, researchers were able to quantify preventive mass vaccination campaigns (PMVC) to reduce yellow fever outbreaks at the province level using the self-controlled case series method. As a result, PMVCs in Africa averted an estimated 22% to 45% of epidemics during this study period.

February 18, 2021 - PLOS published a new study: Assessing the impact of preventive mass vaccination campaigns on African yellow fever outbreaks.

January 8, 2021 - Published in The Lancet: clinical trial results found that giving a person one-fifth of the standard yellow fever vaccine dose effectively and safely will make it easier for governments and international organizations to prevent people from getting sick from yellow fever during outbreaks of a vaccine shortage.

December 23, 2020 - Sanofi announced, 'To help meet U.S. needs, the yellow fever vaccination with STAMARIL will continue to be available into 2021.'

December 11, 2020 - The WHO reported Ethiopia conducted a reactive yellow fever vaccination campaign to protect communities around an affected district. A yellow fever vaccination campaign targeting 700 000 people in Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples, and Oromia regions was conducted in November 2020, achieving 93% of the target.

October 26, 2020 - The South Sudan Ministry of Health launched a reactive yellow fever vaccination campaign in Kajo, Keji, Central Equatoria State. The campaign aims to protect over 90,000 individuals aged nine months to 60 years from yellow fever infection.

July 17, 2022 - Original Research: Planned Yellow Fever Primary Vaccination Is Safe and Immunogenic in Patients With Autoimmune Diseases: A Prospective Non-interventional Study.

June 25, 2020 - Sanofi Pasteur, the manufacturer of the only yellow fever vaccine (YF-Vax) licensed in the United States, has announced a total depletion of YF-Vax as they transition to a new production facility.

April 2020 - Sanofi Pasteur's new U.S. YF-VAX® production facility has been licensed by the U.S. FDA, and doses continue progressing through manufacturing. In addition, in the U.S., Sanofi Pasteur has worked with the FDA to provide access to another yellow fever vaccine through this EAP. This vaccine, STAMARIL® (Yellow Fever Vaccine [Live], is manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur in France), is registered and distributed in more than 70 countries.

September 30, 2019 - Oregon Health & Science University spinoff Najít Technologies, Inc., of Beaverton, Oregon, will test a yellow fever version of the HydroVax vaccine platform licensed by OHSU. A $3.1-million grant from the National Institutes of Health to Najít will enable Duke University to lead the Phase 1 human clinical trial. In addition, OHSU will study how trial participants' immune systems respond to the yellow fever vaccine. July 19, 2019 - A Randomized Phase I Clinical Trial of HydroVax-YFV, a Novel Inactivated Yellow Fever Vaccine.

August 1, 2019, a study published by the NEJM concluded: 'A fractional dose of the 17DD yellow fever vaccine effectively induced seroconversion in seronegative participants at baseline. In addition, titers remained above the threshold for seropositivity at 1-year after vaccination in nearly all seropositive participants at 1-month after vaccination. These findings support the use of fractional-dose vaccination for outbreak control.'

Yellow Fever Diagnosis

Yellow fever is difficult to diagnose, especially during the early stages. Polymerase chain reaction testing in blood and urine can sometimes detect the virus in the early stages of the disease. However, in later stages, testing to identify antibodies is needed. The U.S. CDC publishes a list of frequently asked questions and answers found on this CDC webpage. And the WHO's FAQ list is found on this webpage.

Note: The content on this webpage has been aggregated from the WHO, the U.S. CDC, and research studies reviewed by healthcare providers, such as Dr. Robert Carlson.