Yellow Fever Vaccines 2023
Yellow Fever Vaccines June 2023
Effective yellow fever vaccines have been available for over 80 years. The 17D yellow fever vaccine was initially approved for human use in 1938, with about 850 million doses distributed worldwide, reported a study in Nature. The World Health Organization (WHO) says a single dose of yellow fever vaccine is sufficient to grant life-long protection. In addition, the Eliminate YelloFeverer Epidemics (EYE), driven by Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), seeks to vaccinate nearly one billion people against yellow fever by 2026. Reports indicate there is a six million 17D-213 dose capacity of the global yellow fever vaccine stockpile.
Yellow Fever Vaccine Availablity 2023
YF-VAX® vaccine is licensed in the U.S. (BL 103915) and available at certified travel vaccine clinics and pharmacies.
Stamaril® vaccine is available internationally in Africa, Australia, Barbados, Brazil, the Caribbean, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, the DRC, Ecuador, Germany, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya, Nigeria, Northern Ireland, Mexico, Philippines, Peru, Scotland, Singapore, Venezuela, and the U.K.
Bio-Manguinhos Yellow fever vaccine - In Brazil, the National Immunization Program offers the yellow fever vaccine.
Institut Pasteur Yellow fever vaccine - This vaccine is produced at the Institut Pasteur in Dakar. The laboratory is approved by the World Health Organization to supply the yellow fever vaccine to Expanded Programs on Immunization in Africa.
Chumakov Institute Yellow fever vaccine - The Chumakov Center is a research organization in medical virology. The vaccine is a freeze-dried virus-containing suspension of specific pathogen-free chick embryo tissues infected with attenuated Yellow Fever virus, strain 17D.
RegaVax is a vaccine candidate using the yellow fever vaccine virus's genetic code as a carrier (or vector) for the coronavirus's genetic code.
Najít Technologies HydroVax-002 YFV is a Novel Inactivated Yellow Fever vaccine candidate conducting phase 1 clinical research with the NIH, evaluating dosages of 1 mcg and five mcg was given intramuscularly on Day 1 and Day 29.
Yellow Fever Vaccine Indication
And according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO), yellow fever vaccination is recommended for people aged nine months or older and traveling to or living in areas at risk for the yellow fever virus. A single dose of the yellow fever vaccine promotes sustained immunity for about 90% of people vaccinated within ten days, says the WHO. In addition, in January 2023, the CDC confirmed that yellow fever vaccines could be administered at any time before, concurrent with, or after any antibody-containing preparation. And a yellow fever vaccine booster dose is unnecessary.
The CDC's Travelers' Health Branch has revised and recertified its online course "Yellow Fever Vaccine: Information for Health Care Professionals Advising Travelers" through April 2023. In addition, the journal Journal of Virological Methods published an early-release study (June 2023): A high sensitivity and specificity real-time RT-PCR designed to detect all known strains of yellow fever virus was developed.
Yellow Fever Vaccination Card
The International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP), known as the yellow card, is required to enter certain countries. For example, in the U.S., vaccinated people receive a yellow fever card (ICVP) to prove they recently had a yellow fever vaccine. Forty-seven countries in Africa (34) and Central and South America (13) are either endemic or have yellow fever endemic regions, says the WHO. For specific information on ICVP entry requirements, please see the individual country pages, such as Argentina, Angola, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Ghana, Kenya, Paraguay, Rwanda, and Uganda. In addition, ICVP requirements are contained in the WHO's Country List.
The U.K.'s National Health Service (NHS) updated yellow fever vaccination requirements for specific countries in November 2022, and it is available on the CDC Travelers' Health webpage.
Yellow Fever Vaccine Fractional Dosage
The peer-review journal The Lancet Infectious Diseases published an Opinion on April 28, 2023, saying the effort put into preventive vaccination of the at-risk population should be unrelenting. Fractional dose yellow vaccination in an emergency or reactive mass vaccination campaign has become essential in stretching the limited vaccine stockpile over a many-fold larger population. On April 28, 2023, The Lancet published phase 4 clinical study results from immunogenicity and safety of fractional doses of 17D-213 yellow fever vaccine in HIV-infected people in Kenya, that concluded Fractional doses of the 17D-213 yellow fever vaccine were sufficiently immunogenic and safe, demonstrating non-inferiority to the standard vaccine dose in HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ T cell counts of at least 200 cells per mL. These results confirm that fractional dose recommendations apply to populations with high HIV prevalence.
The Lancet published results from a clinical study in January 2021 (updated Feb. 2022, concluding, 'Fractional doses of all WHO-prequalified yellow fever vaccines were non-inferior to the standard dose in inducing seroconversion 28 days after vaccination, with no major safety concerns. These results support using fractional dosage in the general adult population for outbreak response in a vaccine shortage.' The WHO's initial position on fractional yellow fever vaccine was set out in the 2013 WHO position paper.
Yellow Fever Monoclonal Antibody Treatment
Research from Oregon Health & Science University and collaborators published in March 2023 indicates lab-made antibodies may be able to cure people infected with yellow fever. Administration of a single dose of either mAb to YFV-infected hamsters or nonhuman primates protected against severe disease and death. Separately, the TY014 treatment candidate is directed against the envelope protein on the surface of the Yellow Fever virus and prevents viral replication by limiting viral fusion to host cells. Tysana Pte Ltd is currently conducting a phase 1 study on humans.
Yellow Fever Vaccine Price
The CDC's Vaccines For Children program provides vaccines at no cost to children. Additionally, UNICEF publishes vaccine prices for children. As is the Stamaril vaccine price, outside of the U.S., Sanofi's Patient Connection® offers various vaccine price savings. In addition, Sanofi has live support specialists at (800) 633-1610 to answer patients' questions. And InstantRx™ is a digital gateway empowering people to find lower-priced vaccines easily.
Yellow Fever Travel Advisories
The U.S. CDC and the U.K. Travel Health Advice recently issued yellow fever Travel Advisories for Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria, and Brazil. In addition, since September 2021, thirteen countries in the WHO African Region (Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, and the Republic of Congo.
As of May 2023, yellow fever outbreak news is posted at Vax-Before-Travel.
Yellow Fever Vaccine News 2023
April 28, 2023 - The Lancet Infectious Diseases published an Article: Immunogenicity and safety of fractional doses of 17D-213 yellow fever vaccine in children. Conclusions: Fractional doses of the 17D-213 vaccine were non-inferior to standard doses in inducing seroconversion 28 days after vaccination in children aged 9–59 months when assessed with PRNT50, but we found fewer children seroconverted at ten days.
April 25, 2023 - The PAHO confirmed human cases of yellow fever have been recorded in Bolivia (two cases) and Brazil (three cases).
March 15, 2023 - The Ugandan Ministry of Health intends to vaccinate over 1.9 million children against yellow fever.
March 4, 2023 - NPJ Vaccines published a study's results: Immunogenicity and protective activity of mRNA vaccine candidates against yellow fever. Our data demonstrate that these mRNA vaccine candidates can be considered an attractive addition to the licensed YF vaccine supply based on the induction of functional antibodies correlating with protection and T-cell responses.
February 8, 2023 - A Nigerian state (Bayelsa) announced a yellow fever outbreak.
January 3, 2023 - The WHO African Region confirmed in 2021, routine immunization coverage against yellow fever in the African Region for childhood vaccinations was 48%.
November 18, 2022 - The WHO published an updated Country List identifying current yellow fever vaccination requirements.
Yellow Fever Diagnosis
Yellow fever is difficult to diagnose, especially during the early stages. The U.S. CDC publishes a list of frequently asked questions and answers found on this CDC webpage. And the WHO's FAQ list is found on this webpage.
Note: The content on this webpage has been aggregated from the WHO, the U.S. CDC, and research studies reviewed by healthcare providers, such as Dr. Robert Carlson.